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Like how the mod expands the timeline, it also expands the already extensive mechanics of how technology works in the base game. The mod has added technologies across its timeline all the way until the year 2320.

The mod adds 4 new tech groups, more than two hundred new technologies, and other cost and cumulative modifiers of administrative, diplomatic, and military technology.

InstitutionsEdit

Institutions, if not embraced by a country, will increase technology cost by +1% per year, to a maximum of +50% per institution. To embrace an institution, that particular institution must be embraced in at least 10% of your autonomy modified development. Gold will then be spent to embrace that institution throughout the entire country. The larger the country, the more expensive it is to embrace an institution.

There are 27 institutions that appear through the game.

Early InstitutionsEdit

These appear every 100 years starting from Legalism in 100 AD to Medicine in 1300 AD. Writing is enabled from the start and is embraced in most of Europe and Asia.

WritingEdit

Embraced by all non-tribal governments at the beginning of the game.

Spread reason Base percentage per month
Friendly coast province has embraced writing 0.1
Neighboring province has embraced writing 0.1
Non-tribal capital 2.0
Capital has admin tech 10 2.0
Is subject and overlord has embraced writing 5.0
Has embraced writing 2.0

Bonus for embracing: Trade efficiency +5% Trade efficiency

LegalismEdit

This can appear beginning from 100 AD in Chinese culture group capitals or high development provinces or capitals

Spread reason Base percentage per month
Friendly coast province has embraced legalism 0.1
Neighboring province has embraced legalism 0.1
Owner is empire government rank 1.0
12 development province and owner is empire government rank 0.5
12 development province or capital and owner has admin tech 8 and has non-tribal government 0.5
12 development province or capital and owner has admin tech 14 0.5
Is subject and overlord has embraced legalism 5.0
Has embraced legalism 2.0

Bonus for embracing: Icon stability -10% Stability cost modifier

Ancient ImperialismEdit

This can appear from 200 AD

Spread reason Base percentage per month
Friendly coast province has embraced ancient imperialism 0.1
Neighboring province has embraced ancient imperialism 0.1
Owner is empire government rank or has large or huge empire modifiers 0.5
12 development province and owner is empire government rank or has large or huge empire modifiers 0.5
Has a glorious monument 0.2
Owner has admin tech at least 16 0.5
Is subject and overlord has embraced ancient imperialism 5.0
Has embraced ancient imperialism 2.0

Bonus for embracing: Core-creation cost -5% Core creation cost

Caste SystemEdit

This can appear from 300 AD in Hindustan and from 500 AD outside it

Spread reason Base percentage per month
Friendly coast province has embraced caste system 0.1
Neighboring province has embraced caste system 0.1
Development size at least 18 and owner is any kind of tribe, council or horde 0.5
Development size at least 15, owner's adm tech is at least 16 and is any kind of tribe, coucil or horde 0.5
Development size at least 12 and owner's administrative tech at least 18 0.5
Is subject and overlord has embraced caste system 5.0
Has embraced caste system 2.0

Bonus for embracing: National tax modifier +10% Global tax modifier

Organized ReligionEdit

This can appear from 400 AD to Christans, Muslims, Jews and Iranians then to other ones from 700 AD

Spread reason Base percentage per month
Friendly coast province has embraced organized religion 0.1
Neighboring province has embraced organized religion 0.1
Is Christian, Muslim or Jewish 0.2
Is a capital and the owner, Christian, Muslim, Jewish or Iranian, has embraced Early Religious Ideas 5.0
Has a temple 5.0
Owner has admin tech at least 36 0.2
Is subject and overlord has embraced organized religion 5.0
Has embraced $ 2.0

Bonus for embracing: Missionary strength +1% Global missionary strength

SerfdomEdit

This can appear from 500 AD to Francia Francia in Italy and in the following century to all Eurasia

Spread reason Base percentage per month
Friendly coast province has embraced serfdom 0.1
Neighboring province has embraced serfdom 0.1
Is a 15-development capital and owner is a republic or a tribe 1.0
12 development province and owner has admin tech at least 25 1.0
Is subject and overlord has embraced serfdom 5.0
Has embraced serfdom 2.0

Bonus for embracing: Production efficiency +10% production efficiency

ManorialismEdit

This can appear from 600 AD

Spread reason Base percentage per month
Friendly coast province has embraced manorialism 0.1
Neighboring province has embraced manorialism 0.1
15-development capital of a republic or a tribe 1.0
12 development province and owner has admin tech at least 28 1.0
Is subject and overlord has embraced manorialism 5.0
Has embraced manorialism 2.0

Bonus for embracing: Vassal forcelimit bonus +10% vassal forcelimit modifier

Early FeudalismEdit

This can appear from 700 AD

Spread reason Base percentage per month
Friendly coast province has embraced early feudalism 0.1
Neighboring province has embraced early feudalism 0.1
Has Nobles estate (Cossacks DLC required), any neighbour province has embraced early feudalism and Nobles loyalty above 40 0.05
Capital of a feudal monarchy 1.0
Capital of a country with at least 2 vassals 1.0
Capital and owner has at least 34 adm tech 1.0
Is subject and overlord has embraced early feudalism 5.0
Has embraced early feudalism 2.0

Bonus for embracing: Vassal forcelimit bonus +10% vassal forcelimit modifier

Crop rotationEdit

This can appear from 800 AD

Spread reason Base percentage per month
Friendly coast province has embraced crop rotation 0.1
Neighboring province has embraced crop rotation 0.1
Has a storehouse 5.0
Capital and owner has at least 38 adm tech 1.0
Is subject and overlord has embraced crop rotation 5.0
Has embraced crop rotation 2.0

Bonus for embracing: Manpower recovery speed +10% manpower recovery speed

Civil serviceEdit

This can appear from 900 AD

Spread reason Base percentage per month
Friendly coast province has embraced civil service 0.1
Neighboring province has embraced civil service 0.1
15-development capital of any kind of tribe 1.0
12 development and owner has adm tech of at least 40 1.0
Is subject and overlord has embraced civil service 5.0
Has embraced civil service 2.0

Bonus for embracing: Advisor cost -5% advisor cost

Manuscripts Edit

This can appear from 1000 AD

Spread reason Base percentage per month
Friendly coast province has embraced manuscripts 0.1
Neighboring province has embraced manuscripts 0.1
15-development capital with a temple of a Christian, Muslim, Vedic, Buddhic or Eastern country 1.0
12 development and owner has adm tech of at least 45 1.0
Is subject and overlord has embraced manuscripts 5.0
Has embraced manuscripts 2.0

Bonus for embracing: Idea cost -5% Idea cost

Scholasticism Edit

This can appear from 1100 AD

Spread reason Base percentage per month
Friendly coast province has embraced scholasticism 0.1
Neighboring province has embraced scholasticism 0.1
18-development province of a Christian, Muslim, Vedic, Buddhic or Eastern country 1.0
12 development and owner has adm tech of at least 47 1.0
Is subject and overlord has embraced scholasticism 5.0
Has embraced scholasticism 2.0

Bonus for embracing: Tolerance own +1 Tolerance of the true faith

Guilds Edit

This can appear from 1200 AD

Spread reason Base percentage per month
Friendly coast province has embraced guilds 0.1
Neighboring province has embraced guilds 0.1
Capital of a merchant republic 5.0
Has a marketplace 0.2
Has a dock 5.0
12-development province and owner has adm tech of at least 49 1.0
Is subject and overlord has embraced guilds 5.0
Has embraced guilds 2.0

Bonus for embracing: Global trade income modifier +5% global trade goods size modifier

Medicine Edit

This can appear from 1300 AD

Spread reason Base percentage per month
Friendly coast province has embraced medicine 0.1
Neighboring province has embraced medicine 0.1
Province has had plague, famine and/or drought 5.0
24 development province 1.0
12-development center of trade 0.2
Capital of owner with at least 51 adm tech 0.5
Is subject and overlord has embraced medicine 5.0
Has embraced medicine 2.0

Bonus for embracing: Development cost -5% development cost

Vanilla InstitutionsEdit

These institutions cover the vanilla EU4 period from 15th to 19th century

Feudalism Edit

This is present from 1400 in the Old World, except among the hordes and sub-Saharan Africa.

Spread reason Base percentage per month
Port or Capital of a Colonial nation. 5.0
Has embraced Feudalism. 2.0
Present in friendly neighbor province. 0.5
Present in non-owned neighbor province. 0.1
Capital in old world while not horde, native, or tribal. 0.1
Owned by non-disloyal Noble Estate while present in neighbor province. 0.05


Bonus for Embracing: General +1 Leaders without upkeep

Renaissance Edit

This appears in the Italian region after 1450, in either a capital or a 20+ development province. It can only be embraced by nations that already have Feudalism.

Spread reason Base percentage per month
Port or Capital of a Colonial nation while overlord has embraced. 5.0
Has embraced Renaissance. 2.0
Latin-cultured capital in the Italian region. 1.0
Province in the Flanders, Tuscany, or Venice area. 0.5
Present in friendly neighbor province. 0.5
Present in non-owned neighbor province. 0.3
European province with at least 5 development after 1500. 0.1
European province with at least 10 development. 0.05
European province with at least 20 development. 0.05

Bonus for Embracing: Development -5% Development cost & Build cost -5% Build cost

Colonialism Edit

Appears after 1500 in a port province in the same area as the capital of its owner. The province must be in Europe, Asia, or Africa, and the owner must have the Quest of the New World idea, and have discovered the new world.

Spread reason Base percentage per month
Port or Capital of an old-world country that has colonial subjects. 10
Port or Capital of a Colonial nation while overlord has embraced. 5.0
Has embraced Colonialism. 2.0
Present in friendly neighbor province. 1.0
Port while present in neighbor port. 0.5

Bonus for Embracing: Trade power +10% Provincial trade power

Printing Press Edit

This arrives after 1550, in a province the same area as the capital of its owner. The province must be either protestant, reformed, or in one of the German regions.

Spread reason Base percentage per month
Port or Capital of a Colonial nation while overlord has embraced. 5.0
Has embraced Printing press. 2.0
Owner is protestant or reformed. 2.0
Province is protestant or reformed. 1.0
Capital whose owner has diplomatic technology 15. 0.75
Present in friendly neighbor province. 0.5
Present in non-owned neighbor province. 0.2
Owned by non-disloyal Clergy Estate while present in neighbor province. 0.05
European capital with at least 20 development. 0.05

Bonus for Embracing: Icon stability -5% Stability cost modifier

Global Trade Edit

This is supposed to arrive after 1600, and might appear in a province owned by the strongest trade power in the most-valued trade-node if you are lucky. The province will be either a Center of Trade, a capital, or in the most-valued trade-node. However, it is currently broken and will not trigger no matter how much you google it.

Spread reason Base percentage per month
Port or Capital of a Colonial nation while overlord has embraced. 5.0
Has embraced Global Trade. 2.0
Has a stock exchange. 1.0
Is a Center of Trade. 0.5
Printing press is present. 0.5
Has a port and present in neighbor province. 0.5
Has no port and present in neighbor province. 0.25
Has a trade depot. 0.1
Owned by non-disloyal Burgher Estate while present in neighbor province. 0.05
Has a marketplace. 0.01

Bonus for Embracing: Merchants +1 Merchant

Manufactories Edit

This arrives after 1650 in a province the same area as the capital of its owner with 20 development and a manufactory.

Spread reason Base percentage per month
Port or Capital of a Colonial nation while overlord has embraced. 5.0
Has embraced Manufactories. 2.0
Has a manufactory. 1.0
Present in friendly neighbor province. 0.35
Present in non-owned neighbor province. 0.05

Bonus: Goods produced +10% Goods produced

Enlightenment Edit

Arrives after 1700 in a province the same area as the capital of its owner and either has a seat in Parliament, has a University, or is a province with at least 20 development in Europe owned by a monarch with at least 5 in all stats.

Spread reason Base percentage per month
Port or Capital of a Colonial nation while overlord has embraced. 5.0
Has embraced Enlightenment. 2.0
Has a seat in Parliament. 5.0
Has a University. 5.0
Is a capital whose owner has completed innovative ideas. 5.0
Is a capital whose owner has diplomatic technology 20 and employs a Natural Scientist. 3.0
Is a capital whose owner has diplomatic technology 20 and employs a Philosopher. 1.5
Present in friendly neighbor province. 0.1
Present in non-owned neighbor province. 0.1

Bonus for Embracing: Culture conversion cost -25% Culture conversion cost

Modern Institutions Edit

They cover any period since 19th century

Imperialism Edit

This can appear from 1750 AD

Spread reason Base percentage per month
Friendly coast province has embraced imperialism 0.1
Neighboring province has embraced imperialism 0.1
Capital of a European country with oversea lands 5.0
Owner has unlocked all Expansion and Influence ideas 5.0
Is subject and overlord has embraced imperialism 5.0
Has embraced imperialism 2.0

Bonus for embracing: Core-creation cost -20% core creation cost

Industrialization Edit

This can appear from 1800 AD

Spread reason Base percentage per month
Friendly coast province has embraced industrialization 0.1
Neighboring province has embraced industrialization 0.1
Has a factory 5.0
Has a wharf, a weapons factory or a textile factory 5.0
Is subject and overlord has embraced industrialization 5.0
Has embraced industrialization 2.0

Bonus for embracing: Global trade income modifier +20% Global trade goods size modifier

Nationalism Edit

This can appear from 1850 AD

Spread reason Base percentage per month
Friendly coast province has embraced nationalism 0.1
Neighboring province has embraced nationalism 0.1
Province has nationalism 5.0
Owner is winning a war and has imperialism 5.0
Is a European capital with 40 development at least 2.0
Is subject and overlord has embraced nationalism 5.0
Has embraced nationalism 2.0

Bonus for embracing: Morale of armies +10% land morale and Years of separatism +5 years of nationalism

Electrification Edit

This can appear from 1900 AD

Spread reason Base percentage per month
Friendly coast province has embraced electrification 0.1
Neighboring province has embraced electrification 0.1
40 development and owner has adm tech of at least 82 1.0
20 development and owner has adm tech of at least 85 1.0
Has a factory 2.0
Is subject and overlord has embraced electrification 5.0
Has embraced electrification 2.0

Bonus for embracing: Development cost -20% development cost

Globalization Edit

This can appear from 1950 AD

Spread reason Base percentage per month
Friendly coast province has embraced globalization 0.1
Neighboring province has embraced globalization 0.1
Is a (inland) center of trade 0.5
50 development and owner has adm tech of at least 86 1.0
Has a stock exchange and owner has dip tech of at least 86 1.0
Is subject and overlord has embraced globalization 5.0
Has embraced globalization 2.0

Bonus for embracing: Trade power abroad +20% global foreign trade power

The Internet Edit

This can appear from 2000 AD

Spread reason Base percentage per month
Friendly coast province has embraced internet 0.1
Neighboring province has embraced internet 0.1
Capital of country with adm tech at least 90 5.0
Owner's dip tech is at least 90 and has electrification 1.0
Is subject and overlord has embraced internet 5.0
Has embraced internet 2.0

Bonus for embracing: National tax modifier +10% global tax modifier

Technology groupsEdit

Each country belongs to a technology group. Each tech group has a modifier to tech cost that represents the pace of innovation (or lack thereof) in that part of the globe in history, as well as determining what level of technology it starts the game with in 1444. Each group also has a unique list of land unit types representing the general military strategy of similar countries. The unit list also determines the maximum ratio of cavalry as a proportion of an army (excluding artillery) that can be fielded without suffering the insufficient support penalty. Western tech group is the only that can have trade companies. Primitives refers to nations that have a technology group that makes their techs cost at least 50% more than base cost. Primitives are subject to:

  • No ability to build boats
  • Reduced gold income
  • Subject to reduced agressive expansions from non-primitives
  • Subject to reduced diplomatic costs in peace deals from non-primitives
Tech group Tech cost Cav to inf ratio Monthly power reduction Primitive? In Vanilla
Western Western +0% 1:2 None No Yes
Eastern Eastern +16% 3:5 None No Yes
Ottoman Ottoman +21% 1:2 None No Yes
Muslim Muslim +30% 4:5 None No Yes
Indian Indian +30% 1:2 -1 All power costs No Yes
Chinese Chinese +32% 1:2 -1 All power costs No Yes
Nomadic Nomadic +38% 1:1 -1 All power costs No Yes
West African West African +40% 1:2 -1 All power costs No Yes
North American North American +100% 1:2 -1 All power costs Yes Yes
Mesoamerican Mesoamerican +60% 1:2 -1 All power costs Yes Yes
South American South American +100% 1:2 -1 All power costs Yes Yes
Andean Andean +60% 1:2 -1 All power costs Yes Yes
Roman Roman +16% 1:2 -1 All power costs No No
Barbarian Barbarian +30% 1:2 -2 All power costs No No
Muslim Middle Eastern +26% 1:2 -1 All power costs No No
Chinese Asian +16% 1:2 None No No
Indian Early Indian +32% 1:2 -2 All power costs No No
Chinese Early Chinese +35% 1:2 -2 All power costs No No
Nomadic Western Nomadic +40% 1:1 -2 All power costs No No
Nomadic Eastern Nomadic +40% 1:1 -2 All power costs No No
High American High American +0% 1:2 None No Yes
East African East African +40% 1:2 -1 All power costs No Yes
Central African Central African +50% 1:2 -1 All power costs Yes Yes
Religion irreligious Polar +200% 1:2 -10 All power costs Yes No

WesternizationEdit

As of 1.18, the westernization mechanic has been removed and has been replaced with institutions. 

Through westernization, a country not in the western tech group may gain access to the knowledge of Europe, and replace its technology group with the Western one. Westernization (except by decision) is a difficult process and will severely disrupt a nation for decades, rendering them vulnerable to domestic turmoil and external attacks. Once westernization begins, loss of the western core or border will not cancel the process. Roman tech group can't westernize, neither can High American. Starting the Westernization process requires the following conditions be met:

  • The sum of all tech levels of a neighboring Western tech group country must be at least 7 more than the sum of all the country's tech levels.
  • The country must have a stability of at least 0.
  • The country may not be overextended.
  • Steppe nomads need to reform their governments prior to Westernizing.
  • New World natives with the Tribal Council government must also reform the government before westernization.
  • New World states following Inti, Nahualt, South American or Mesoamerican religions must fully reform them before westernization.
  • An AI country cannot be a protectorate
  • One of the following conditions must be true:
    • The country owns and has a core on a core province of a western nation.
    • The country has a core province bordering a core province of a western nation that is not assigned to a trade company.
  • The High American tech group, only appearing in Random New Worlds with fantasy elements (Conquest of Paradise DLC required), is considered Western for the purpose of allowing other states to westernize. A country westernizing this way becomes Western, not High American.

Decisions to change tech groupEdit

Barbarian to WesternEdit

Requirements:

  • Is at peace
  • Administrative tech level at least 19
  • Administrative power at least 100
  • Not has government:
    • Barbarian tribe
    • Tribal despotism
    • Tribal democracy
    • Tribal federation

Upon enactment:

  • Lose 100 administrative power
  • Lose 1 stability
  • If:
    • Culture group is either Germanic, Scandinavian, British, Gaelic, Latin, Iberian, French or Basque: change technology group to Western
    • If none of the above culture groups, change technology group to Eastern

Middle Eastern to MuslimEdit

Requirements:

  • Is at peace
  • Administrative power at least 100
  • Either:
    • Administrative tech level 26
    • Religion group muslim

Upon enactment:

  • Lose 100 administrative power
  • Lose 1 stability
  • Change technology group to muslim

Middle Eastern to EasternEdit

Requirements:

  • Is at peace
  • Administrative power at least 200
  • Religion group is christian
  • Administrative tech level 21

Upon enactment:

  • Lose 200 administrative power
  • Lose 1 stability
  • Change technology group to eastern

Chinese or Indian to AsianEdit

Requirements:

  • Is at peace
  • Administrative power at least 200
  • Administrative tech level at least 86

Upon enactment:

  • Lose 200 administrative power
  • Lose 1 stability
  • Change technology group to Asian

Early Chinese to ChineseEdit

Requirements:

  • Is at peace
  • Administrative power at least 200
  • Administrative tech level at least 24

Upon enactment:

  • Lose 200 administrative power
  • Lose 1 stability
  • Change tech group to Chinese

Early Indian to IndianEdit

Requirements:

  • Is at peace
  • Administrative power at least 200
  • Administrative tech level at least 24

Upon enactment:

  • Lose 200 administrative power
  • Lose 1 stability
  • Change tech group to Indian

Western and Eastern Nomadic to NomadicEdit

Requirements:

  • Is at peace
  • Administrative power at least 200
  • Administrative tech level at least 24
  • Military tech level at least 24

Upon enactment:

  • Lose 200 administrative power
  • Lose 1 stability
  • Change tech group to Nomad

Western FocusEdit

Potential:

  • Eastern or Anatolian tech group
  • If:
    • not East Slavic or Finno-Ugric, own as core either Wien or Prague
    • East Slavic or Finno-Ugric, own as core either Danzig or Krakow
  • This decision hasn't been passed by anyone else

Requirements:

  • Administrative tech level at least 10
  • Is at peace
  • Has 1 stability
  • Has at least 300 development
  • Is at least a Kingdom
  • The required province (Wien, Prague, Danzig or Krakow) is without nationalism

Upon enactment:

  • Change tech group to Western

List of TechnologiesEdit

Administrative TechnologiesEdit

This technologies require administrative power to get unlocked. If you're ahead of time in this kind of technology, you get +20% production efficiency and -0.05 yearly corruption.

Level Technology Effects Year Description
0 Ancient Government
  • 2 more states allowed
  • Enables Buildings:
    • Native Earthwork
    • Native Palisade
    • Native Fortified House
    • Native Three Sisters Field
    • Native Irrigation
    • Native Storehouse
    • Native Longhouse
    • Native Sweat Lodge
    • Native Great Trail
    • Native Ceremonial Fire Pit
10 The most basic unit of governance is an extended family where all members of a community claim kinship with each other, a tribe in other words.
1 Tribal Despotism

Enables Tribal Despotism

26 In tribal despotism the tribe is controlled by an individual ruler with unlimited power and the ability to exercise any action without consequence or retribution, often ruling through fear.
2 Tribal Federation

Enables Tribal Federation

46 In tribal federation a confederation of tribes rule with a certain degree of internal autonomy but are nationally governed by a central authority.
3 Tribal Democracy

Enables Tribal Democracy

69 In tribal democracy all the members of the tribe are allowed to make their voice heard and influence how their tribe should be governed.
4 Barbarism

No effect

91 In a barbarian tribe the strongest often gets to be the king. After the king's death, the title is passed on to his children, if can prove to be capable.
5 Domestication No effect 133 Domestication is the process whereby living organisms are changed through generations of selective breeding to accentuate traits that ultimately benefit humans.
6 Animal Husbandry No effect 156 Animal husbandry is the management and care of farm animals by humans for profit, in which genetic qualities and behaviour, considered to be advantageous to humans, are further developed.
7 Monument Enables Glorious Monument 176 By building large monuments, we can please the gods and prove the glory of our people.
8 Calendar

Production efficiency: +1%

211 A simple calendar would be useful for farmers as they could see the optimal times for planting and harvesting.
9 Shrine No effect 226 Shines are small structures where people gather to worship the gods. Building more of them could strengthen our religion.
10 Slavery No effect 276 A granary is a storehouse or room in a barn for threshed grain or animal feed. The stored supply of food will help us survive though bad harvests.
11 Taxation

Enables Tribal Kingdom

294 Governing a country requires money and one of the most effective ways to get some, is to gather a regular tax from the people.
12 Early Ideas

Unlocks the First Idea Slot

312 Choosing the direction a country is going to take is perhaps the toughest choice a ruler will ever face. National ideas are the concepts that will shape our country for years to come.
13 Irrigation

Production efficiency: +1%

335 Rainfall is a critical factor to the success of our agriculture. Irrigation will help offset droughts and bring less fertile lands into cultivation.
14 Blacksmith No effect 352 Building large forges will allow us to produce more weapons and other metal objects quickly.
15 Literature No effect 385 Different historical periods are reflected in literature. National and tribal sagas, accounts of the origin of the world and of customs, and myths which sometimes carry moral or spiritual messages predominate in the pre-urban eras.
16 Class System

Production efficiency: +1%

403 The class system is a social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper, middle, and lower classes.
17 Monarchy

Enables Feudal Monarchy

449 In a monarchy the country is ruled by the king who holds absolute power over his people. However, the nobles can hold significant amounts of power.
18 Music No effect 491 Music was an important part of social and cultural life among ancient civilizations. Greek musical literacy created a flowering of music development.
19 Laws

Unlocks the Second Idea Slot

536 Laws are rules and guidelines which are enforced through social institutions to govern behavior. Laws were required to keep people from committing crimes or rebelling.
20 Warehouse Enables Storehouse 597 A warehouse is a building designed for storage of goods. These warehouses will help us protect our valuables from threats like rain and thieves.
21 Despotism

Enables Despotic Monarchy

647 Among the earliest government types known to man, the country is ruled by a single individual with undefined power.
22 Heavy Plough

Production efficiency: +1%

691 The introduction of wheels to replace the runner allowed the weight of the plough to increase, and in turn allowed the use of a much larger mouldboard faced in metal. These heavy ploughs led to greater food production and eventually a significant population increase.
23 Temples

Enables Temple

708 Constructing great temples will unite our people through religion and provide a great excuse to collect some extra money from them.
24 Philosophy 3 more states allowed 732 Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems, such as those connected with reality, existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
25 Horse Collar Prodcution efficiency: +1% 774 Ancient horse harnesses pressed against the horse's muscles and trachea which restricted its breathing and reduced the pulling power. The collar allows a horse to use its full strength when pulling, essentially allowing the horse to push forward with its hindquarters into the collar.
26 Crop Rotation

Production efficiency: +1%

793 Crop rotation is the practice of growing a series of different types of crops in the same area in sequential seasons. Crop rotation gives various benefits to the soil like the replenishment of nitrogen through the use of green manure in sequence with cereals and other crops.
27 Advanced Tools Production efficiency: +1% 815 Constructing proper buildings requires proper tools. With more advanced tools we can produce products with greater presicion and efficiency.
28 Horseshoes No effect 855 Since the early history of domestication of the horse, working animals were found to be exposed to many conditions that created breakage or excessive hoof wear. The invention of the horseshoe resolved these problems.
29 Watermill

Production efficiency: +1%

876 A watermill is a structure that uses a water wheel or turbine to drive a mechanical process such as flour, lumber or textile production, or metal shaping.
30 Medieval Ideas

Unlocks the Third Idea Slot

922 With the beginning of the Middle Ages, our wisest men have come up some new ideas we could adopt.
31 Serfdom

Production efficiency: +1%

967 Serfdom is the status of peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to manorialism. It is a condition of bondage or modified slavery.
32 Imperial Administration No effect 987 The empire is the highest ranked form of government. It is used for a large sprawling group of states that are united and ruled by a single individual.
33 Workshop

Enable Windmill

1005 A workshop has the tools and facilities for producing various tools, instruments and other goods. Building these workshops will help increase our productivity.
34 Feudalism 4 more states allowed 1026 In a feudal system the power is shared between the monarch and the nobles, where labor or military services are offered in exchange for land.
35 Theocracy

Enables Theocracy

1046 In a theocracy the nation is governed by the clergy in the name of God.
36 Monastery No effect 1064 Monastery is a building where monks or nuns live in seclusion and celibacy practicing various religious activities.
37 Principality

Enables Principality

1088 A principality is very similar to feudal monarchy, but the monarch uses the title of prince or another title within the generic use of the term prince.
38 Windmill Enables Workshop 1126 A windmill is a machine that converts the energy of wind into rotational energy by means of vanes called sails or blades. Windmills were originally developed for milling grain for food production.
39 Merchant Republic

Enables Merchant Republic

1149 In a merchant republic, the nation is governed by rich and powerful families with a heavy reliance on trade and commerce."
40 Wheelbarrow

Production efficiency: +2%

1196 Improvements in the design of ploughs can reduce the workload on draft animals, allowing them to do more work.
41 Oligarchic Republic

Enables Oligarchic Republic

1235 "The oligarchic republic is a governmental form where a few patrician families hold the power and elect rulers amongst themselves.
42 Improved Plough

Production efficiency: +2%

1259 Improvements in the design of ploughs can reduce the workload on draft animals, allowing them to do more work.
43 Theology

Unlocks the Forth Idea Slot

1306 Theology is the systematic and rational study of concepts of God and of the nature of religious truths, or the learned profession acquired by completing specialized training in religious studies.
44 Civil Service

5 mores states allowed

1329 Administrative institutions often grow out of the personal servants of high officials. This develops a complex administrative structure, where appointments to it were made entirely by inheritance or patronage and not on merit, and it was also possible for officers to employ other people to carry out their official tasks but continue to draw their salary themselves.
45 Education Enables Constable 1350 The idea that a machine can be decomposed into simple movable elements led Archimedes to define the lever, pulley and screw as simple machines. By the time of the Renaissance this list increased to include the wheel and axle, wedge and inclined plane.
46 Machinery

Production efficiency: +2%

1390 A family structure with most senior members at the top can work for nonrelated groups. In its simplest form, the system is meritocratic, with leadership tasks assigned to the most capable."
47 Late Feudalism No effect 1420 As social organization improves, so do things like food production. Increasing food production allows a society to upkeep people who aren't producers of food themselves. This leads to creation of a military elite, to defend against enemy's military elite. Supporting of the military elite is the basis of the feudal system.
48 Medieval Administraion

Allows Support Rebels

1430 With a military elite to govern our society, the next stage of development is to have a literate class of administrators. Usually these will be drawn from the ranks of clergy.
49 National Ideas

Unlocks Cathedral

1453 Choosing the direction a country is going to take is perhaps the toughest choice a ruler will ever face. As new thinkers and ideas are rising, there are more possibilities than ever before
50 Constable

Unlocks the Fifth Idea Slot

1466 Housing the machinery of government is as important as the machinery itself.
51 Three Field Rotation

Production efficiency: +5%

1479 Since the time of Charlemagne, people have been experimenting with switching from classic two field rotation systems to a three field system. It is time to promote this, as it will increase the amount of land devoted to growing food crops.
52 Noble Republic
  • Unlocks the Sixth Idea Slot
  • Enables Noble Republic
1492 The notion of a noble oligarchy ruling the society has existed, since well, at least the Roman times, and remained popular in some parts of the world. Now this idea is once more gaining popularity amongst those who matter.
53 Courthouse

Enables Courthouse

1505 The problem with a hereditary local nobility is that they tend to value their local interests over those of the rest of the nation. We need to steadily expand the reach of the government, which begins with two of the most important areas of administration, justice and taxation.
54 The Scythe

Production efficiency: +5%

1518 Although it has been in existence for a long time, the scythe somehow still isn't the most popular tool for harvesting crops. By encouraging peasants to use a scythe instead of a sickle we will improve the efficiency of our harvests.
55 Modern Theocracy

Unlocks the Seventh Idea Slot

1531 The development of the social structure is not exclusive to the aristocracy. The clergy too have to improve their internal governance. This will assist in the development of modern thought in our country.
56 Counting House & Spy Agency

Enables Textile Manufactory

1544 The expansion of government, particularly in the area of revenue collection is of vital importance. Gradual improvements in the administration have allowed us to take the next step in government expansion.
57 Fine Arts Academy
  • 6 more states allowed
  • Enables Government Forms:
    • Administrative Monarchy
    • Administrative Republic
1557 As art patronage became more important for the prestige of the ruler, the need for a constant supply of talented artists has also grown. The first Fine Arts Academy was founded in Florence in 1563.
58 Improved Drainage Production efficiency: +5% 1570 The more land we can cultivate, the bigger the population we can feed in that area. Gradual improvements in drainage have led to wetlands being brought into use.
59 Treasury Office & Town Hall
  • Unlocks the Eighth Idea Slot
  • Enables Plantations
1583 Towns have always been centers of trade and, due to their concentration of population, theoretically also great places to levy taxes. The problem is that people, unlike land, have a tendency not to stay in the same place. Improving our ability to keep track of people will allow us to better our administration of cities.
60 Textile Manufactory

Unlocks the Forced March Ability for Armies

1596 Textiles were manufactured since time immemorial. The invention of stocking frame in 1589 was the first step towards the industrial revolution and the beginning of mechanization. This invention would lead to increase in textile production.
61 College & Mint

Production efficiency: +5%

1609 Money and people are what we need to govern effectively. We need to create a class of administrators who are skilled not only in scholastic philosophy but also have a solid grounding in mathematics, the classics and the Bible. Secondly we need to ensure the stability of coinage by making it uniform in quality.
62 University
  • 9 more states allowed
  • Enables University
1622 The great medieval universities were of course great but they were not able to produce enough graduates to staff our growing administration. We need to expand our universities or we will fall behind.
63 Cathedral & Stock Exchange Unlocks the Ninth Idea Slot 1635 Promotion of religion will be crucial for the stability of the realm. Creating a market for debt and equity will ensure the growth of revenue for the state.
64 Glorious Monument

Enables Tax Assessor

1648 It is not enough to be great, people must be able to see our greatness. The ancients knew how to display their greatness and we will do the same by building monuments to withstand the test of time.
65 Absolute Rulership
  • 12 more states allowed
  • Enables Government Forms:
    • Absolute Monarchy
    • Republican Dictatorship
1661 There are many people who demand to be given a role in the government, but in reality mostly want rewards without effort. A new interesting idea of absolutism is spreading, which is a system where we dispose of those parasites and govern alone.
66 Land Clearance

Production efficiency: +5%

1674 Large-scale woodlands are of course useful as a source of firewood and a place for hunting, but if the trees were to go, those lands could be used for farming instead.
67 The Constitution
  • Unlocks the Tenth Idea Slot
  • Enables Town hall
  • Enables Government Forms:
    • Constitutional Monarchy
    • Constitutional Republic
1687 A new philosophical concept called constitutionalism has been developed, where the government accepts legal limits to its power. This is an intriguing idea, but I can't see it catching on.
68 Improved Irrigation

Administrative efficiency: +25%

1700 Rainfall is a critical factor to the success of our agriculture. New improvements in irrigation will help offset poor rainfall and bring less fertile lands into cultivation.
69 Grain Depot
  • Development efficiency: +25%
  • Enables Counting House
  • 15 more states allowed
1715 They say an army marches on its stomach, but when you think about it, not only is this physiologically impossible, but also very unsettling as an image. However, there is no denying the importance of being able to feed one's army on the march. A system of grain depots will help with that.
70 Improved Production

Production efficiency: +5%

1730 Having the technical means to improve land and thus production is useless without incentives to do so. By reforming the laws of land tenure we can provide greater incentives to adopt improved methods of production.
71 Constitutional Ideas

Unlocks the Eleventh Idea Slot

1745 Our thinkers continue to develop the flawed notions of constitutional limitations on government power. Amusing as these ideas may seem, they also inspire progressive thought in other areas.
72 Tax Assesor
  • Administrative efficiency: +25%
  • 18 more states allowed
1760 The importance that money plays in government cannot be underestimated. The need to collect revenue is important and knowing how much revenue should be collected is even more so. We'll be setting up an office to estimate how much tax should be collected.
73 Rotherham Plough
  • Production efficiency: +5%
  • Development efficiency: +25%
1785 The basic plow in use in Europe has been unchanged since the Roman times. Now, thanks to improvements in design, the same plough can be made much lighter, reducing workload on draft animals, allowing them to do more work.
74 The Enlightenment
  • Unlocks the Twelfth Idea Slot
  • Enables Government Forms:
    • Bureaucratic Despotism
    • Enlightened Despotism
1790 These so called enlightened philosophers are nothing more than madmen, with notions such as the separation of church and state and sexual or racial equality. Still, their thinking has led to the development of new ideas in the areas of state and government.
75 Advanced Production
  • Production efficiency: +10%
1805 Fortunately for us, the so called enlightened philosophers didn't restrict themselves to writing subversive political treaties, but they also have come up with ideas in the areas of science and engineering. These are a boon to our economy and have led to an increase in production.
76 Revolutionary Ideals
    • Administrative efficiency: +10%
    • 21 more states allowed
  • Enables Government Forms:
    • Revolutionary Empire
    • Revolutionary Republic
1820 These foolish revolutionaries think they can simply consign hundreds of years of progress to the dustbin of history, all in the name of such outlandish concepts as liberty and equality. We will defeat them through the tried and tested plan of stealing the bits and pieces of their ideas that we like.
77 Industrialization
  • Development efficiency: +10%
  • Enables Factory
1835 The old hand production methods are becoming obsolete by the introduction of new machinery. We must begin industializing our country or we will fall behind our rivals in productivity.
78 Electricity

Production efficiency: +5%

1848 Our scientists have discovered electricity and already built the first electric motors. This new source of power has a chance of becoming an essential tool for modern life.
79 Seculatism 24 more states allowed 1855 In the modern world tolerance and equality are becoming increasingly important. Our advisors suggest that we look into the possibility of abolishing the idea of state religion in favor of secularism.
80 Replaceable Parts

Production efficiency: +5%

1867 Making machines from regulated replaceable parts will save a lot of resources as the whole machine won't have to be replaced if just one part of it breaks.
81 Universal Suffrage
  • Administrative efficiency: +10%
  • Unlocks the Thirteenth Idea Slot
1885 As the ideas of equality and liberty are gaining ground, women along with many minorities that are not allowed to vote are demanding equality and a right to vote.
82 Assembly Line
  • Production efficiency: +5%
  • Development efficiency: +10%
1897 Assembly lines, designed for the sequential organization of workers, machines and parts, would allow faster manufacturing of goods along with decreased workload for the workers.
83 Communism

Enables Government Forms:

  • Communist Dictatorship
  • Socialist Republic
1915 A sociologist named Karl Marx has come up with an idea to remove the inequality of society classes. In socialism the government would ensure that everyone has enough of everything and noone gets too rich or poor.
84 Fascism
  • Administrative efficiency: +10%
  • Enables Fascist Dictatorship
1930 A new national socialist movements have been formed in some countries. They claim that democracy is outdated and ineffective and want to replace it with a fascist government.
85 Electrification
  • Production efficiency: +5%
  • Enables Coal Plant
  • 30 more states allowed
1936 With the increased supply of electricity we are now able to bring it to all major factories. That would allow them to produce greater amounts of products.
86 Parliamentary System
  • Administrative efficiency: +10%
  • Enables Government Forms:
    • Parliamentary Monarchy
    • Parliamentary Republic
    • Presidential Republic
1940 Many of our politicians agree that it's not good one person to have too much power. They suggest that much of the power regarding internal matters is transferred from the head of state to the parliament.
87 Nuclear Power
  • 33 more states allowed
  • Enables Nuclear Plant
1946 Nuclear power has proven to be capable of great destruction, but if we manage to turn this power into electricity, we could satisfy the ever growing demand.
88 Plastics Development efficiency: +10% 1960 Our scientists are researching new substances called plastics. They are moldable and durable and could be useful for numerous different purposes.
89 Computers
  • 36 more states allowed
  • Production efficiency: +5%
1980 All computers have so far been rather cumbersome and slow, but with more powerful ones being constantly developed, it seems like they could revolutionize the modern world.
90 Renewable Energy

Unlocks the Forteenth Idea Slot

1995 Experts say that we may soon run out of fossile fuels and that using them pollutes the atmosphere. They suggest we look for alternative, renewable energy sources.
91 Fusion Power

Enables Fusion Reactor

2025 Many scientists claim that fusion power is the solution to the world's energy problems. It doesn't produce pollution or nuclear waste and is more effective than any earlier form of energy.
92 Future Administration 1

Development efficiency: +10%

2040 In the future of administration democracy is likely to prevail even in those parts of the world that are still ruled by despots, but one can't say for sure.
93 Future Administration 2

39 more states allowed

2080 In the future of administration democracy is likely to prevail even in those parts of the world that are still ruled by despots, but one can't say for sure.
94 Future Administration 3

Production efficiency: +5%

2120 In the future of administration democracy is likely to prevail even in those parts of the world that are still ruled by despots, but one can't say for sure.
95 Future Administration 4

42 more states allowed

2160 In the future of administration democracy is likely to prevail even in those parts of the world that are still ruled by despots, but one can't say for sure.
96 Future Administration 5

Production efficiency: +5%

2200 In the future of administration democracy is likely to prevail even in those parts of the world that are still ruled by despots, but one can't say for sure.
97 Future Administration 6

45 more states allowed

2240 In the future of administration democracy is likely to prevail even in those parts of the world that are still ruled by despots, but one can't say for sure.
98 Future Administration 7

Production efficiency: +5%

2280 In the future of administration democracy is likely to prevail even in those parts of the world that are still ruled by despots, but one can't say for sure.
99 Future Administration 8

48 more states allowed

2320 In the future of administration democracy is likely to prevail even in those parts of the world that are still ruled by despots, but one can't say for sure.

Diplomatic Technologies Edit

This technologies require diplomatic power to get unlocked. If you're ahead of time in this kind of technology, you get +20% Trade Efficiency and -0.05 Yearly Corruption

Level Technology Effects Unlocked Naval Units Year Description
0 Trading
  • May Fabricate Claims
  • Enables Merchants
  • Trade Range: +25
None 10 ”If we want something we don't have, we could get it from someone, if we in return give them something they need.
1 Ancient Seafaring Naval Morale: +0.2 None 26 Ancient seafaring often consisted of siple rafts or small boats mainly designed for fishing.
2 Transport No effect TransportTransport 46 The transport is a larger galley with less crew inside leaving enough room to transport regiments across the seas.
3 Trireme No effect GalleyTrireme 69 The trireme was an ancient vessel and a type of galley. It derives its name from its three rows of oars, manned with one man per oar.
4 Merchant Ship

Trade Range: +10

LightshipMerchant Ship 91 Merchant ships are small and fast galleys designed primarily for trading.
5 Alphabet

Trade Range: +10

None 133 An alphabet is a standard set of letters which is used to write one or more languages based on the general principle that the letters represent phonemes of the spoken language.
6 Roadbuilding

Colonial Range: +20

None 156 Building roads would allow our armies and traders to move faster across our country.
7 Classical Navy

Morale of Navies: +0.2

None 176 The classical navy consisted mainly of rowed galleys. The ships would often stand side to side and the troops inside would then engage on combat.
8 Naval Ram

Morale of Navies: +0.1

None 211 A naval ram an underwater prolongation of the bow of the ship to form an armoured beak. This would be driven into the hull of an enemy ship in order to puncture the hull and sink or disable that ship.
9 Early Galley No effect

GalleyEarly Galley

226 Galleys dominated the pre-medieval naval warfare, and only minor variations were noticeable between ships from different countries.
10 Currency

Trade efficiency: +1%

None 276 Trading goods to other goods is often vague and sometimes difficult, if one has to give half a horse for some weapons. Currency could solve many of these problems.
11 Mathematics

Colonial Range: +20

None 294 Basic mathematics is useful not only in construction, but also commerce.
12 Early Naval Tactics

Morale of Navies: +0.1

None 312 In early naval warfare, ships were hard to sink. Combat would often happen with the technique of grappling and boarding enemy ships with soldiers.
13 Trade Caravans

Trade efficiency: +2%

None 335 Caravans are a group of people travelling together. They were often merchants carrying their goods over vast distances.
14 Foreign Trade

Trade Range: +10

None 352 By trading with distant countries, we could acquire exotic goods that are highly valued among our local merchants.
15 Paved Roads Enables Road None 385 Paved roads would allow our armies to move even faster across our country.
16 Greek Fire

Morale of Navies: +0.1

None 403 Greek fire was an incendiary weapon used in naval battles to great effect as it could continue burning while floating on water.
17 Dromon No effect

GalleyDromon

449 The dromon was a type of galley and an important warship of the Byzantine navy until they were succeeded by Italian-style galleys. It was developed from the ancient liburnian, which was the mainstay of the Roman navy during the Empire.
18 Naval Raiding

Morale of Navies: +0.1

None 491 In naval raiding a raiding party would land from a ship to loot and pillage and then return to their ships and sail away before the enemy can retaliate.
19 Bridgebuilding

Trade efficiency: +1%

None 536 Large rivers are difficult obstacles for armies and traders. By building bridges we could make moving across the country easier.
20 Trade Ventures

Trade Range: +5

None 597 We could try to increase our trade profits by looking for new more distant trading partners.
21 Professional Merchants

Trade efficiency: +1%

None 647 Using professional well-trained merchants would increase our trade efficiency.
22 Shipyards

Global Settler Increase: +2

None 691 Creatings Shipyards specifically designed for building ships could increase the quality and speed of our shipbuilding.
23 Naval Training

Morale of Navies: +0.2

None 708 Providing our sailors with proper naval training could make our navies more effective in battle.
24 Piracy

Trade efficiency: +1%

None 732 In order to improve our own trade, it's sometimes useful to harm that of our competitors. This could be done by hiring professional privateers to steal their trade vessels.
25 Clinker Builder Ships Naval morale: +0.2 None 774 Clinker built is a method of boat building where the edges of hull planks overlap. Later the technique was successfully used in the Viking longship and the Hanseatic cog.
26 Celestial Navigations

Colonial Range: +30

None 793 Celestial navigation means navigation with the help of the stars. Its principles were already known for millenia, but was significantly improved in the Islamic Caliphate through the inventions of the kamal and the quadrant.
27 Advaned Naval Training

Morale of Navies: +0.2

None 815 Improving the naval training recieved by our sailors and the soldiers on board, would increase the effectiveness of our navies.
28 Longship No effect

GalleyLongship

855 Longships were sea vessels made and used by the Vikings from the Nordic countries for trade, commerce, exploration, and warfare during the Viking Age.
29 Knarr No effect

TransportKnarr

876 A knarr is a type of ship used by the Vikings. The knarr was a cargo ship, the hull was wider, deeper and shorter than a longship, and could take more cargo and be operated by smaller crews.
30 Trade Networks

Trade efficiency: +2%

None 922 Established trade networks would make it easier for traders to move across the country.
31 Paper Money No effect None 967 Paper money was gradually developed in China. It reduced the need for risky transporting of gold and silver, it facilitated loans, since the gold or silver never left the possession of the lender and it allowed a division of currency into credit and specie backed forms.
32 Galley No effect

GalleyGalley

987 In the late Middle Ages the galleys ruled the mediterranean and other inland seas. They were used for raiding along the coast.
33 Medieval Naval Tactics

Morale of Navies: +0.2

None 1005 By the medieval times, the domination of galleys was broken in the open seas, where there was a greater focus on sailing ships that were used mostly for troop transport. Galleys were still the main warships in inlands seas.
34 Marketplace

Enables Marketplace

None 1026 Building marketplaces in order to promote trade will not only encourage commerce but also allow us to better tax it.
35 Cartography

Trade Range: +10

None 1046 Making proper maps showing all major roads and ports, would make it easier for our merchants to reach foreign centers of trade.
36 Bartering

Trade efficiency: +2%

None 1064 With good bartering skill our merhants could be able to trade less valuable items to more valuable ones, turning in extra profit.
37 Advanced Maps

Morale of Navies: +0.2

None 1088 If we gather information about underwater rocks, treacherous shallows and other dangerous spots from different merchants and mark them on our maps, it would help our merchants avoid them.
38 Cog No effect

TransportCog

1126 The cog is a one masted trading vessel originating from northern Europe.
39 Compass

Naval Maintainance: +10%

None 1149 A compass that uses the magnetic field of earth can show the direction at open seas more accurately than the sun or the stars.
40 Sternpost

Trade efficiency: +2%

None 1196 Sometime around the 12th century, northern European ships began to be built with a straight sternpost, enabling the mounting of a rudder, which was much more durable than a steering oar held over the side.
41 Guilds

Global Settler Increase: +3

None 1235 A guild is an association of artisans or merchants who control the practice of their craft in a particular town. The earliest types of guild were formed as confraternities of workers.
42 Trade Posts Enables Dock None 1259 Establishing small trade posts along major trade routes would increase the amount and effect of our trade.
43 Dry Compass

Colonial Range: +20

None 1306 Earlier liquid compasses were often large and cumbersome to use. The dry compass is more reliable and easier to use.
44 Medieval Torpedo

Morale of Navies: +0.2

None 1329 One of the most significant inventions in medieval naval warfare was the torpedo. The torpedo ran on water with a rocket system filled with explosive gunpowder materials and had three firing points. It was a very effective weapon against ships.
45 Medieval Navy

Colonial Range: +20

None 1350 Shipbuilding can mean a lot of different things, it is amazing how far you can get on a raft for example. However, this is not the same as creating a fleet to enforce policies of a state. This requires a whole different approach to the building of ships, as well as developing ways to control the navy you've build.
46

Recovery of Trade

  • Global Settler Increase: +5
  • Trade Range: +10
None 1390 The patterns of trade had been seriously disrupted in the 14th century, possibly due to plagues and pandemics. Now trade is slowly beginning to recover.
47 The Barque No effect

LightshipBarque

1420 The barque has a long history, beginning as an Ancient Egyptian river boat. However, since then the term has gradually come to mean a light ship.
48 The Early Carrack
  • Colonial Range: +60
  • Global Settler Increase: +15
  • Morale of Navies: +0.1
  • Naval Maintainance: +10%
BigshipEarly Carrack 1430 The first true ocean-going ship. Unlike galleys and cogs, Carracks can serve the role of proper ocean-going warships.
49 Dock
  • Trade Range: +10
  • Enables Trade Post
None 1453 Creation of legal and regional infrastructure in order to promote trade will not only encourage commerce but also allow us to better tax it."
50 Basic Financial Instruments
  • Trade efficiency: +5%
  • Trade Range: +10
None 1466 Overseas trade is very risky but also highly profitable. The development of financial instruments like letters of credit will help reduce the risk, increasing our profits.
51 Embassies

Enables Shipyard

None 1479 We can develop better relations with neighboring countries by establishing embassies in their capitals, allowing our ambassadors to maintain permanent presence in their courts.
52 Naval Ambitions
  • Colonial Range: +115
  • Morale of Navies: +0.3
None 1492 With an extra boost to naval morale, our sailors will conquer the waves and rule the seas. While our colonists will be able to brave the dark corners of the world, founding new settlements farther from home than ever before.
53 Trade Depot & Drydock
  • Trade Range: +10
  • Enables Buildings:
    • Drydock
    • Trade Depot
None 1505 Trade depots will offer central locations for trade goods to be accumulated and distributed from for higher trade efficiency. Dry docks will allow us to maintain a fleet able to protect our trade.
54 Carracks & Caravel
  • Colonial Range: +50
  • Morale of Navies: +0.2
  • Naval Maintainance: +20%
  • May Study Technology
  • LightshipCaravel
  • BigshipCarrack
1518 Development of the lateen sail allowed Carracks to sail much closer to the wind than earlier vessels. Enhanced maneuverability made them superior to other ships.
55 The Flute
  • Global Settler Increase: +10
  • Trade efficiency: +5%
  • Trade Range: +10
  • TransportFlute
  • GalleyWar Galley
1531 A Flute is a specialised cargo vessel capable of carrying a large load with a very small crew. Flutes were designed to be built cheaply and in large numbers. A useful ship if you need to move things across the oceans.
56 Canal & Shipyard

Colonial Range: +100None

None 1544 Land transportation of a lot of cargo is simply too expensive, moving it by ship is more efficient. Building canals will allow ships to assist with our inland trade, while shipyards will provide enough ships to do so.
57 Wharf
  • Morale of Navies: +0.4
  • May Slander Merchants
None 1557 The great wharfs and jetties will act as entrepôts for the world's goods. Let us build them and prosperity will follow.
58 Grand Shipyard & Road None

TransportBrig

1570 Roads will allow products to better flow to coastal markets, where ships built in our grand shipyards will pick up these goods to deliver them to customers in other countries.
59 The Galeass

Enables Trade Company

GalleyGalleass

1583 Galleys were light and small, and it was very difficult to mount cannons on them. The Galleass was a larger vessel capable of carrying a broadside of cannons like a man-of-war. To compensate for this extra weight, Galleass would be equipped with an additional sail.
60 The Galleon
  • Colonial Range: +50
  • Global Settler Increase: +15
  • Naval Maintainance: +20%
  • May Sabotage Recruitment
  • LightshipEarly Frigate
  • BigshipGalleon
1596 Galleon was created by lowering the forecastle and elongating the hull. These changes in design improved the speed and stability of the ship. Which was of vital importance for Galleons to serve as better gun platforms.
61 Post Office & Naval Arsenal
  • Trade efficiency: +5%
  • Trade Range: +10
None 1609 Knowledge is power, but how do you share it? A letter from far off lands is just the solution, and a post office is a perfect place to send one.
62 Merchantman
  • Colonial Range: +50
  • Trade efficiency: +5%
  • Trade Range: +20
  • Enables Trade Depot

TransportMerchantman

1622 Further development of transport ships led to construction of larger and faster vessels, which still tried to maintain the simplicity of construction of the Flute. These ships fell under the generic term Merchantman.
63 Customs House & Naval Base
  • Morale of Navies: +0.5
  • May Sow Discontent

GalleyGaliot

1635 A Customs House was a government building that handled the neccessary paperwork regarding the import and export of goods in to the country, as well as collecting customs duty.
64 THe War Galleon
  • Colonial Range: +50
  • Naval Maintainance: +25%
  • Enables Grand Shipyard
  • LightshipFrigate
  • BigshipWargalleon
1648 The War Galleon, also known as a race-built Galleon, was built by reducing the number of decks on a Galleon. This sacrificed cannons for maneuverability, which proved to be beneficial in combat.
65 Refineries
  • Trade efficiency: +5%
  • Trade Range: +20
None 1661 Sugar is one of the most valuable commodities in the world. Refineries are vital for generating the sweet stuff that people love.
66 The Chebeck May Sabotage Reputation

GalleyChebeck

1674 Originally developed by Barbary Corsairs, this galley didn't carry as many guns as a Galleas, but it was smaller and far more maneuverable. This improved maneuver allowed it to be far more effective in combat.
67 Limes
  • Naval Maintainance: +25%
  • Morale of Navies: +0.5
  • Enables Reduced Naval Attrition
  • Enables Treasury Office
  • TransportTrabakul
  • BigshipTwodecker
1687 In 1614 a rather mad physician wrote a treatise suggesting that scurvy was a result of a dietary problem and could be solved by consuming lemon or lime juice. As it turns out, there was method in his madness and we have started providing this new diet for our sailors. Other countries call us limey now.
68 Heavy Frigates
  • Colonial Range: +150
  • Global Settler Increase: +25
  • Enables Creation of Client States

LightshipHeavy Frigate

1700 Original frigate design described any ship that was built for speed and maneuverability. As the concept developed though, it became its own unique class of a ship designed to support ships of the line.
69 The Archipelago Frigate
  • Trade efficiency: +5%
  • Trade Range: +20
  • May Corrupt Officials

GalleyArchipelago Frigate

1715 A special version of the Frigate originally developed for operation in the Baltic. It kept a broadside of a frigate, but had a shallow draft and oars giving greater maneuverability in shallow waters, while sacrificing seakeeping in open oceans.
70 The Threedeckers
  • Morale of Navies: +0.5
  • Naval Maintainance: +25%

BigshipThreedecker

1730 The addition of a third deck was a small sacrifice in maneuverability for a huge gain in close combat. The additional deck gave the ship an ability to fire onto the decks of smaller two-decker ships, while at the same time protecting its own deck.
71 The Eastindiaman

Colonial Range: +200

  • TransportEastindiaman
  • LightshipGreat Frigate
1745 The East Indiaman was the largest merchant ship built, it typically could displace in excess of 1,000 tons and measure over 175 feet in length. Those queens of the oceans were the most efficient way of moving men and cargo around the globe.
72 Public Punishments
  • Morale of Navies: +0.5
  • Naval Maintainance: +25%
  • May Agitate for Liberty
None 1760 Life at sea is full of dangers and thus the punishments need to be harsh. If they do not have a sufficient deterrence effect, we will quickly run into trouble. Over time a system of highly public punishments has evolved, and now the time has come to formalize those. This will greatly enhance discipline at sea.
73 Joint Stock Companies
  • Trade efficiency: +5%
  • Trade Range: +20
None 1775 As trade grew, so did the risk. New ways of accumulating capital and managing risk needed to be developed. In Joint Stock Companies the risk of enterprise was shared among their many shareholders.
74 Midshipman Cadets
  • Morale of Navies: +0.5
  • Naval Maintainance: +25%
None 1790 Originally the midshipman was a rank given to an experienced seaman who worked amidships. Men who aspired to become officers would often choose to serve in this role. If we formalize this, and make it a precondition for acquiring the rank of a commissioned officer, we will ensure our future leaders understand the ships they command.
75 Insurance Companies
  • Trade efficiency: +5%
  • Trade Range: +20
  • May Infiltrate Administration
None 1805 A further reduction of risk came with the development of insurance. The ability for people to offset risk through payment of a small fee to an insurance broker allowed for further growth of trade.
76 Superior Ship Design
  • Morale of Navies: +0.5
  • Naval Maintainance: +25%
  • Enables Highway
None 1820 Building ships that are slightly faster than those of our opponents, even if the amount of this extra speed is so negligible that it is of no military significance, can still fill our crews with confidence and make our enemy wary of taking us on in an even fight.
77 The Gold Standard
  • Global Settler Increase: +25
  • Trade efficiency: +5%
  • Trade Range: +20
None 1835 The ongoing trade deficit between Europe and China has caused a shortage of silver bullion in Europe and all over the world. Switching from silver coinage to gold coinage will allow new coinage to enter circulation and get trade flowing in ever greater amounts.
78 Railroad
  • Trade efficiency: +5%
  • Enables Railroad
None 1848 The invention of steam power has led to significantly better means of transportation. With railroads we can transport goods and people very quickly over vast distances.
79 Ironclad
  • Global Settler Increase: +25
  • Naval Maintainance: +10%
  • Enables Naval Base

BigshipIronclad

1855 Wooden warships have become very vulnerable to explosive or incendiary shells. Protecting the ships by iron or steel armour plates would help them survive naval combat.
80 Telephone
  • Morale of Navies: +0.5
  • Enables Stock Exchange
None 1867 It's often vital to know quickly if something significant happens. With the help of a telephone we could deliver messages across great distances almost instantly.
81 Steam Powerd Ships

Colonial Range: +200

  • LightshipCruiser
  • BigshipDestroyer
  • GalleyTorpedo Boat
  • TransportTroopship
1885 Sailing ships are slow and rely on the winds. By powering the ships with steam power, they could keep moving with great speed even against the winds.
82 Radio
  • Global Settler Increase: +25
  • Trade efficiency: +5%
None 1897 The radio would not only allow us to quickly deliver messages to other countries and the army, but also provide the masses with information and propaganda.
83 Dreadnought No effect

BigshipDreadnought

1915 The dreadnought, larger, better armed and better armored than any ship before, would certainly become the predominant type of battleship in the early 20th century.
84 Radar

Morale of Navies: +0.5

None 1930 Already in the 19th century in was shown that radio waves could be reflected from solid objects. Starting from this idea our scientists are developing the radar that could provide information about enemy movements.
85 Mass Media

Trade efficiency: +5%

None 1936 In any modern society it's vital to keep the masses loyal to the government and hostile to the enemy. This could be achieved by providing them with information and propaganda through mass media.
86 Battleships

Naval Maintainance: +10%

BigshipBattleship

1940 Developing large armored battleships with dozens of heavy caliber guns is vital for any nation which desires to maintain command of the sea.
87 International System of Units
  • Trade efficiency: +5%
  • Trade Range: +20
None 1946 Developing an international standard unit system would make everyday commerce and science between different countries significantly easier.
88 Civil Aviation
  • Colonial Range: +200
  • Trade efficiency: +5%
  • Trade Range: +20
  • Enables Mass Transit System
None 1960 Adopting aviation for civil and commercial purposes would make moving people and goods around the world much faster.
89 Naval Missiles No effect
  • LightshipMissile Cruiser
  • BigshipMissile Destroyer
1980 Modern heavily armored warships are not easily damaged with traditional guns. Developing more powerful missiles for our ships would increase their firepower as well as their range.
90 The Internet

Trade efficiency: +5%

None 1995 In the modern world easy and quick access to information has become vital. Though internet much more information could reach even greater audiences even faster.
91 Nanotechnology

Trade efficiency: +5%

None 2025 Nanotechnology is the manipulation of matter on an atomic scale. It could provide us with superior materials and faster computers.
92 Future Diplomacy 1 No effect None 2040 In the future of diplomacy, diplomatic relations are good and peace well enforced. Large scale wars seem unlikely, but one can't be too certain about it.
93 Future Diplomacy 2

Trade efficiency: +5%

None 2080 In the future of diplomacy, diplomatic relations are good and peace well enforced. Large scale wars seem unlikely, but one can't be too certain about it.
94 Future Diplomacy 3

Morale of Navies: +0.5

None 2120 In the future of diplomacy, diplomatic relations are good and peace well enforced. Large scale wars seem unlikely, but one can't be too certain about it.
95 Future Diplomacy 4

Trade Range: +20

None 2160 In the future of diplomacy, diplomatic relations are good and peace well enforced. Large scale wars seem unlikely, but one can't be too certain about it.
96 Future Diplomacy 5

Colonial Range: +200

None 2200 In the future of diplomacy, diplomatic relations are good and peace well enforced. Large scale wars seem unlikely, but one can't be too certain about it.
97 Future Diplomacy 6

Naval Maintainance: +10%

None 2240 In the future of diplomacy, diplomatic relations are good and peace well enforced. Large scale wars seem unlikely, but one can't be too certain about it.
98 Future Diplomacy 7

Morale of Navies: +0.5

None 2280 In the future of diplomacy, diplomatic relations are good and peace well enforced. Large scale wars seem unlikely, but one can't be too certain about it.
99 Future Diplomacy 8
  • Trade efficiency: +5%
  • Naval Maintainance: +10%
None 2320 In the future of diplomacy, diplomatic relations are good and peace well enforced. Large scale wars seem unlikely, but one can't be too certain about it.

Military TechnologiesEdit

This technologies require military power to get unlocked. They do no effect if you're ahead of time. Units before 19th century are locked to be for only certain types of techgroups, to avoid Aztecs Aztecs using Western Units or Jan Mayen Jan Mayen using Asian Units

Level Technology Effects Unlocked Land Units Year Description
0 Ancient Warfare
  • Infantry Shock: +0.05
  • Morale of Armies: +0.9
  • InfantryWestern Ancient Infantry
  • InfantryIndian Ancient Infantry
  • InfantryEast Asian Ancient Infantry
  • InfantryKanem-Bornu Clubmen
  • InfantryMesoamerican Clubmen
  • InfantryNative Clubmen
  • InfantrySouth American Clubmen
10 The most simple idea of warfare is to simply take a heavy object and start smashing the enemy.
1 Spear No effect
  • InfantryRoman Auxilia
  • InfantryRoman Militia
  • InfantryArmenian Light Infantry
  • InfantryPersian Spearmen
  • InfantryGermanic Spearman
26 The spear has been used for hunting since the dawn of man, so it should be effective in hunting men as well.
2 Archery Infantry fire: +1%
  • InfantryNomadic Bow
  • InfantryCeltic Archers
  • InfantryHeriban
  • Hridriskara
46 The bow allows to fight the enemy at a great distance, long before a melee opponent has a chance of fighting back.
3 Early Cavalry Cavalry shock: +5%
  • CavalryArmenian Light Horsemen
  • CavalryPersian Light Cavalry
  • CavalryBarbarian Horsemen
  • CavalryNomadic Horsemen
  • CavalryXiongnu Horsemen
  • CavalryRoman Cavalry
69 Centuries ago horses were too small to ride on, but now these animals have become capable of carrying humans into combat.
4 Chariot Cavalry shock: +5%
  • CavalryIndian Chariot
  • CavalryEast Asian Chariot
91 In ancient times the chariot was the most fearsome unit on the battlefield. Now, however, they are becoming obsolete due to the incresed significance of cavalry.
5 Battle Axe Infantry fire: +2%

InfantryFrankish Axemen

133 Through the course of human history, commonplace objects have been pressed into service as weapons. Axes are no exception. Besides axes designed for combat, there were many axes that doubled as tools and weapons.
6 Broadsword Infantry shock: +2%
  • InfantryGothic Swordsmen
  • InfantryAlemanne
156 Early Iron Age swords were significantly different from later steel swords. They were work-hardened, rather than quench-hardened, which made them about the same or only slightly better in terms of strength and hardness to earlier bronze swords.
7 Classical Cavalry Cavalry shock: +5%
  • CavalryChnite
  • CavalryAuxiliary Cavalry
176 The earliest cavalrymen were often unarmored and armed with low quality weapons. As the role of cavalry in the battlefield increased, they recieved better equipment and light armor.
8 Parthian Tactics Land morale: +0.05

CavalryParthian Shot

211 The Parthian shot was a military tactic made famous by the Parthians. The Parthian archers mounted on light horse, while retreating at a full gallop, would turn their bodies back to shoot at the pursuing enemy.
9 Standing Army Infantry shock: +2%
  • InfantryRoman Legionary
  • InfantryArmenian Heavy Infantry
  • InfantryNomadic Infantry
  • InfantryNomadic Infantry En
  • InfantryImmortals
226 A standing army is a permanent, often professional, army. It is composed of full-time soldiers and is not disbanded during times of peace.
10 War Elephants Land morale: +0.05
  • CavalryEarly War Elephant
  • CavalrySouth Asian War Elephant
276 A war elephant was an elephant trained and guided by humans for combat. Their main use was to charge the enemy, trampling them and breaking their ranks and instilling terror.
11 Horse Armor Cavalry shock: +5%
  • CavalryClibanarii
  • CavalryArmenian Horsemen
294 Without any armor, the large horses are easy targets for the enemy. By providing the horses with armor, the cavalry would survive better on the battlefield.
12 Raiding Cavalry shock: +5%
  • CavalryBarbarian Raiders
  • CavalryEast Asian Raider
  • CavalryNomadic Raiders
  • InfantrySub-Saharan Clubmen
  • InfantryJaguar Warriors
  • InfantryComitatenses
  • InfantryLimitanei
  • CavalryEquites Promoti
  • CavalryEquites Scutarii
312 Raiding is a military tactic that is not normally intended to capture and hold terrain, but instead to rob and pillage enemy holdings and then to quickly retreat.
13 Composite Bow Infantry fire: +2%
  • InfantryComposite Bowmen
  • InfantryIndian Archer
335 A composite bow is a bow made from horn, wood, and sinew laminated together. When the bow is drawn, the sinew and horn store more energy than wood for the same length of bow. The strength can be made similar to that of all-wood bows, with similar draw-length and therefore a similar amount of energy delivered to the arrow from a much shorter bow.
14 Scale Armor Infantry shock: +2%
  • InfantryRoman Praetorian
  • InfantryMigration Period Axemen
  • InfantryMigration Period Spearmen
  • InfantryJian Swordsmen
352 Scale armour is an early form of armour consisting of many individual small armour scales of various shapes attached to each other and to a backing of cloth or leather in overlapping rows.
15 Horde Tactics Cavalry shock: +5%
  • CavalryHun horde
  • InfantryHun infantry
  • CavalryNomadic horde
  • InfantryTurkic nomad infantry
  • InfantryBolas warriors
  • InfantryNative warriors
385 A large group of horses charging full speed towards a defender is a scary sight and often even the most disciplined soldiers broke formation or fled.
16 Heavy Cavalry Cavalry shock: +1%


  • CavalryCataphract
  • CavalryWestern Horsemen
  • CavalryWar Elephant
  • CavalryEast Asian Nomad Cavalry
  • InfantryAuxilia Palatina
  • Unnigardae
403 Covering both the rider and the horse in scale armor did slow the cavalry down a bit, but made it also very hard to kill.
17 Fortifications Enables Fort Level 2 InfantryByzantine Praetorian 449 Constructing better fortifications is essential to slow down an advancing enemy or preventing our towns from being easily raided.
18 Leadership Land morale: +0.1
  • InfantryMiddle Eastern Archers
  • InfantryMiddle Eastern Spearmen
  • CavalryBucellarii
  • InfantryFoederati
491 Even the mightiest army doesn't do well without a capable commander. With the right tactics it is possible to beat back a far superior foe.
19 Stirrup Cavalry shock: +10%
  • CavalryHeavy Cataphract
  • CavalryWestern Heavy Horsemen
  • CavalryArmored Elephant
  • InfantryArithmoi
  • Optimates
536 A stirrup is a light frame or ring that holds the foot of a rider, attached to the saddle by a strap. Stirrups are used to aid in mounting and as a support while riding. They greatly increase the rider's ability to stay in the saddle and control the mount, increasing the animal's usefulness to humans in areas such as communication, transportation and warfare.
20 Military Training Land morale: +10%
  • InfantryByzantine Heavy Praetorian
  • InfantrySlavic Archers
  • InfantryFrankish Infantry
  • InfantryGothic Infantry
  • Indian Longbow
  • InfantryQiang Spearmen
  • InfantryEagle Warriors
  • InfantryBarbarian Infantry
597 Providing all our troops with proper military training will increase their combat abilities as well as morale and discipline.
21 Ring Armor Infantry shock: +2%
  • InfantryCaliphate Infantry
  • InfantryAkritai
  • InfantryPugnarii
  • Hippo Akontistai
647 Ring armour was believed to be a leather or textile item of clothing with a large number of metal rings sewn or tied directly into the foundation garment. Unlike mail armour, the rings are not physically interlocked with each other.
22 Improved Swords Infantry shock: +5%
  • InfantryByzantine Infantry
  • InfantryBulgarian Man at Arms
  • InfantryDao Swordsmen
691 Eventually smiths learned that by adding an amount of carbon to the iron, they could produce an improved alloy now known as steel. By quenching and tempering, swords could be made that would suffer much less damage, and would spring back into shape if bent.
23 Mounted Archery Tactics Cavalry shock: +10%
  • CavalryBulgarian Horsemen
  • CavalryCaliphate Cavalry
  • CavalryEast Asian Horsemen
  • CavalryNomadic Horse Archers
708 The natives of large grassland areas developed mounted archery for hunting, and for war. In battle, light horse archers were typically skirmishers; lightly armed missile troops capable of moving swiftly to avoid close combat or to deliver a rapid blow to the flanks or rear of the foe.
24 Military Organization Land morale: +0.1
  • InfantryByzantine Tagmata
  • InfantryGermanic Infantry
  • InfantrySteppe Infantry
  • InfantryAfrican Warriors
732 Military organisation is the structuring of the armies of a state allowing better control, management and administration.
25 Lance Cavalry shock: +10%
  • CavalryWestern Lancers
  • CavalryEastern Lancers
774 The lance is a pole weapon or spear designed to be used by a mounted warrior. During the periods of Classical and Medieval warfare it evolved into being the leading weapon in cavalry charges.
26 Camelry No effect CavalryCamel riders 793 Camel cavalry were a common element in desert warfare throughout history due in part to the animal's high level of adaptability. They provided a mobile element better suited to work and survive in an arid and waterless environment than the horses of conventional cavalry.
27 Tempered Steel Infantry shock: +5%
  • InfantrySlavic Infantry
  • InfantryWestern Swordsmen
  • InfantryKhanda
  • InfantryDadao Swordsmen
815 Although tempering swords was invented earlier, it took a long time before this was done consistently, and even until the end of the early medieval period, many swords were still unhardened iron.
28 Skirmish Tactics Infantry fire: +5%
  • InfantryViking Axemen
  • InfantryMuslim Skirmishers
  • InfantryAfrican Skirmishers
  • InfantrySteppe Archers
  • InfantryAtlatl
  • InfantrySpear Thrower
  • InfantrySlinger
  • CavalryHungarian Horse Archers
  • CavalryPecheneg Cavalry
  • InfantrySkoutatoi
  • CavalryHippo Toxotai
855 In ancient and medieval warfare, skirmishers typically carried bows, javelins, slings, and sometimes light shields. Acting as light infantry with their light arms and minimal armour, they could run ahead of the main battle line, release a volley of arrows, slingshots or javelins, and retreat behind their main battle line before the clash of the opposing main forces.
29 Noble Soldiers Infantry Shock: +2%
  • CavalryEarly Knights
  • InfantryMeteor Hammer
876 Originally, knights or nobles were mounted warriors who swore allegiance to their sovereign and promised to fight for him in exchange for an allocation of land.
30 Bodkin Arrow Infantry fire: +5% CavalryCuman Horde 922 A bodkin point is a type of arrowhead. In its simplest form it is an uncomplicated squared metal spike, and was used extensively during the Middle Ages. Its main purpose was to penetrate heavy plate armor.
31 Royal Guard Land morale: +0.1
  • InfantryByzantine Immortals
  • InfantryHungarian Infantry
  • InfantryHousecarls
  • InfantryChinese Polearm Infantry
  • InfantrySamurai
  • InfantryVarangian
  • Skholai
  • InfantryNovae Testudo
  • InfantryGraeci Procursatoribus
  • CavalryAscensores Hun
967 Forming a royal guard would help in keeping the most important people alive and can also functions as an elite armed force during times of war.
32 Chivalry Combat width: +1
  • CavalryEarly Eastern Knight
  • CavalryCrusade Knights
  • CavalryCamel Archers
  • CavalryElephant Archers
  • CavalryKhmer Elephant
  • CavalryYabusame
987 Chivalry, or the chivalric code, is the traditional code of conduct associated with the medieval institution of knighthood. Chivalry arose from an idealized German custom. It developed first in the north of France among horse soldiers who served in Charlemagne′s heavy cavalry.
33 Hit and Run Tactics Land morale: +0.1
  • CavalryMongol Horde
  • InfantryMongol Infantry
  • InfantryAfrican Tribal Warriors
1005 In hit-and-run tactics the purpose of the combat involved is not to seize control of territory, but to inflict damage on a target and immediately exit the area to avoid the enemy's retaliation. It is meant to have a psychological effect on the enemy's morale.
34 Shield Wall Infantry shock: +2% None 1026 The shield wall is a military tactic that was common in many cultures in the Pre-Early Modern warfare age. In general, a shield wall was formed by soldiers standing in formation shoulder to shoulder, holding their shields so that they abut or overlap.
35 Crossbow Infantry fire: +5%
  • InfantryCrossbowmen
  • InfantryChukonu
1046 A crossbow is a type of bow consisting of a horizontal limb assembly mounted on a stock that shoots projectiles, called bolts or quarrels. The crossbow was the first projectile weapon to be simple and physically-undemanding enough to be operated by large numbers of conscript soldiers, in contrast to traditional bows which required considerable strength and skill to use effectively.
36 Crossguard Infantry shock: +2%
  • InfantrySeljuk Infantry
  • InfantryUrumi
1064 On a sword, the crossguard is a bar of metal at right angles to the blade, placed between the blade and the hilt. Its purpose is to protect the swordsman's hands.
37 Holy Warriors Land morale: +0.1
  • InfantryPlumed Warriors
  • InfantryPronoiarioi
  • CavalryArchontopoulai
1088 Holy warriors were often devout or fanatic religious soldiers that would display great courage and valor when fighting infidels.
38 Mace
  • Infantry shock: +2%
  • Enables Armory
  • InfantryWestern Macemen
  • InfantryEastern Macemen
1126 A mace is a blunt weapon that uses a heavy head on the end of a handle to deliver powerful blows. During the Middle Ages metal armour and chain mail protected against the blows of edged weapons and blocked arrows and other projectiles. Solid metal maces proved able to inflict damage on well armoured knights, as the force of a blow from a mace can cause damage without penetrating the armour.
39 Advanced Cavalry
  • Military tactics: +10%
  • Combat width: +2
  • CavalryWestern Medieval Knights
  • CavalryEastern Knights
  • CavalryMuslim Lance Cavalry
  • CavalryIndian Horsemen
  • CavalryMounted Samurai
  • CavalryChinese Horsemen
  • CavalrySteppe Cavalry
1149 Several inventions like the saddle, the stirrup and the spur allowed the rider to have better control of the mount. In western Europe there emerged what is considered the ultimate heavy cavalry, the knight. The knights and other similarly equipped mounted men-at-arms charged in close formation, exchanging flexibility for a massive, irresistible first charge.
40 Longbow Infantry fire: +5%
  • InfantryMuslim Archers
  • InfantryChinese Bowmen
  • InfantryYumi Bowmen
  • InfantryMongol Bow
  • InfantryMourtatoi
  • InfantryParamonai
  • CavalryKavalarioi
1196 A longbow is a type of bow that is tall, roughly equal to the height of the person who uses it. In the Middle Ages the English and Welsh were famous for their very powerful Welsh longbows, used to great effect in the civil wars of the period and against the French in the Hundred Years' War.
41 Longsword Infantry shock: +2%
  • InfantryLongswordsmen
  • InfantryMamluk Swordsmen
  • InfantryTurk Swordsmen
  • InfantryTalwar
1235 A longsword is a type of European sword characterized as having a cruciform hilt with a grip for two-handed use and a straight double-edged blade.
42 Brigandine Infantry shock: +2%
  • InfantrySouth American Spearmen
  • InfantryMesoamerican Spearmen
  • CavalryNative Indian Archer
  • InfantryAfrican Spearmen
  • InfantryAfrican Clubmen
1259 A brigandine is a form of body armour from the Middle Ages. It is a cloth garment, generally canvas or leather, lined with small oblong steel plates riveted to the fabric.
43 Pike Artillery shock: +5%
  • InfantryWestern Pikemen
  • InfantryEastern Pikemen
  • InfantryGhazi Warriors
  • InfantryAshigaru
  • InfantryGuandao
  • InfantryAllagion
  • CavalrySkythikon
1306 A pike is a pole weapon, a very long thrusting spear formerly used extensively by infantry. The pike, due to its unwieldy nature, was always intended to be used in a deliberate, defensive manner, often in conjunction with other missile and melee weapons.
44 Plate Armor Military tactics: +10%
  • InfantryHalberd Infantry
  • InfantryBardiche Infantry
  • InfantryLatin Medieval Infantry
  • InfantryEastern Medieval Infantry
  • InfantryPersian Footsoldier
  • InfantryIndian Footsoldier
  • InfantryIndian Archers
  • InfantryChinese Longspear
  • CavalryJapanese Archer
1329 Plate armour is a historical type of personal armour made from iron or steel plates, culminating in the iconic suit of armour entirely encasing the wearer.
45 Cavalry Plate Armor
  • Cavalry shock: +10%
  • Land morale: +0.1

Sprite level 1

  • CavalryLate Eastern Knights
  • CavalryLate Western Knights
  • CavalryMuslim Cavalry Archers
  • CavalryAfrican Mandelaku
  • CavalryAfrican Abyssinian Light Cavalry
  • CavalryPersian Cavalry Charge
  • CavalryDruzhina Cavalry
  • CavalryChevauchée
1350 The most heavily armoured troops of the Middle Ages were heavy cavalry such as the gendarmes and early cuirassiers.
46 Late Medieval Military Infantry shock: +5%
  • InfantryOttoman Yaya
  • InfantryEast Asian Spearmen
  • CavalryRajput Hill Fighters
  • InfantryEastern Bowmen
  • CavalryOttoman Musellem
  • CavalryMamluk Archer
  • CavalryMamluk Cavalry Charge
  • CavalryMongol Swarm
  • InfantryLate Mongol Bowmen
  • CavalryMongol Steppemen
  • InfantryLatinikon
  • Stratioitai
1390 The creation of a professional military class is the first step to creation of a modern army.
47 Eastern Swarm
  • Infantry shock: +10%
  • Cavalry shock: +20%
  • Combat width: +2
None 1420 Charging blindly at the enemy is perhaps not the greatest tactic known to man, but it is one of the simplest to master. It is also the stepping stone to more advanced strategies.
48 Earthen Rampart Land morale: +0.5 None 1430 In 1500, during the siege of Pisa the walls started to crumble under the barrage of the French siege artillery. Local residents started to pile up the rumble outside, in form of a slopping rampart. This proved to be less vulnerable to artillery fire, while at the same time still able to resist an escalade.
49 Pike Square
  • Land morale: +0.5
  • Military tactics: +10%
None 1453 Throughout the middle ages cavalry's dominance was being challenged by disciplined pikemen. In battles such as Bannockburn or the Golden Spurs, cavalry was defeated by pikes. A combination of improved training and discipline, and the addition of swordsmen to provide close combat support has raised this formation to the peak of its efficiency.
50 Standardized Pikes
  • Supply Limit: +50%
  • Infantry shock: +15%
  • Combat width: +2
  • InfantryWestern Men at Arms
  • InfantryWestern Longbowmen
  • InfantryGalloglaigh Infantry
  • InfantryAztec Tribal Warfare
  • InfantryZapotec Tribal Warfare
  • InfantrySonghai Tribal Warfare
  • InfantryNiger Kongolese Tribal Warfare
  • InfantryBantu Tribal Warfare
  • InfantryMali Tribal Warfare
  • InfantryPueblo Ambush
  • InfantryNative Indian Tribal Warfare
  • InfantryAlgonquin Tomahawk Warfare
  • InfantryIndian Arquebusier
  • InfantryEastern Militia
  • InfantryMamluk Duelmen 
  • InfantryOttoman Azab
  • InfantryInca Mountain Warfare
  • InfantrySouth American Forest Warfare
  • InfantryIncan Slingshots
  • InfantryIncan Axemen
  • InfantryMaya Tribal Warfare
  • InfantryChinese Footsoldier
  • InfantryJapanese Footsoldier
1466 A pike is a remarkably simple weapon to make, but to get the full benefit from the use of pikes, it's required for the whole formation to be wielding weapons of similar length and blade.
51 Arquebus
  • Military tactics: +20%
  • Infantry shock: +30%
  • Combat width: +2
  • CavalryAfrican Somali Cavalry
  • CavalryAfrican Tuareg Cavalry
  • CavalrySlavic Stradioti
  • CavalryNative Indian Horsemen
  • CavalryCentral American Horsemen
  • CavalrySouth American Horsemen
  • CavalryMughal Mansabdar
  • CavalryOttoman Timariot
  • CavalryChinese Steppemen
  • CavalryJapanese Samurai
  • CavalryShaybani
1479 Although hand cannons had been developed in China in the 12th century and had spread to Europe by the 14th, the weakness of these weapons reduced their battlefield utility. Light and reliable Arquebus was able to displace bow due to three main factors. It had better armor penetration, it was easier to train men to use it, and it did not rely on the strength of the user.
52 The Limber
  • Infantry fire: +10%
  • Artillery fire: +100%
  • Military tactics: +25%
  • ArtilleryLarge Cast Bronze Mortar
  • ArtilleryHoufnice
1492 Artillery had been documented in Europe since the thirteenth century, but due to its lack of mobility, it had very limited battlefield use. The development of the Limber in the 1470s allowed guns to become more mobile and thus useful.
53 Pike and Shot
  • Infantry fire: +25%
  • Military tactics: +25%
  • Cavalry shock: +100%
  • Enables Regimental Camp
  • Combat width: +1
None 1505 The Arquebus was easy to use as a weapon, but was also inaccurate and slow to fire, leaving its user vulnerable to cavalry charges. Blending with Pikemen allowed Arquebusiers to fire and then fall back to be shielded by Pikemen when enemy cavalry or infantry appeared.
54 Star Fort None
  • InfantrySouth Indian Musketeer
  • InfantryMughal Musketeer
  • InfantryOttoman Janissary
  • InfantryPersian Shamshir
  • InfantryCondotta Infantry
  • InfantryLandsknechten Infantry
  • InfantryReformed Galloglaigh Infantry
  • InfantryGermanized Pike
  • InfantryAsian Arquebusier
  • InfantrySteppe Raiders
1518 In 1509 a monk and engineer tore down the medieval walls of Padua and replaced them with a rampart and a ditch which could be swept by flanking fire from the walls, adding an additional level of protection.
55 Reiter Maneuver value: +25%
  • CavalryHungarian Hussar
  • CavalryOttoman Spahi
  • ArtilleryCulverin
  • ArtilleryPedrero
  • ArtillerySchwarze Reiter
  • CavalryAfrican Mossi Horsemen
  • CavalryAfrican Abyssinian Cavalry
  • InfantryNative Indian Mountain Warfare
  • InfantryAztec Hill Warfare
  • InfantryMaya Forest Warfare
  • InfantryZapotec Plains Warfare
  • InfantrySouth American Gunpowder Warfare
  • InfantrySouth American Arquebusier
  • CavalryNorth American Rifle Cavalry
  • CavalryCentral American Rifle Cavalry
  • CavalrySouth American Rifle Cavalry
  • CavalryQizilbash Cavalry
  • CavalryEast Mongolian Steppemen
  • CavalryIndian Elephant
  • CavalrySteppe Riders
1531 Pike and shot formations proved a major threat to medieval knights. The initial response was heavier armor to counter the power of gunpowder weapons, but this slowed down cavalry, reducing their shock power. Reiters were usually armed with two pistols and a sword, allowing them to either shoot or charge depending on the opposition they faced.
56 Matchlock Musket
  • Infantry shock: +20%
  • Cavalry fire: +50%
  • Combat width: +2
  • Enables Weapons Manufactory
None 1544 The Arquebus proved to be a very effective weapon for armor penetration, the result was that armor began to get heavier to resist its fire. A larger musket could deliver a heavier round offering better armor penetration
57 Spanish Square
  • Supply Limit: +50%
  • Military tactics: +25%

Sprite Level 2

  • InfantryTofongchis Musketeer
  • InfantryOttoman Sekban
  • InfantryRajput Musketeer
  • Spanish Tercio
  • InfantryGaelic Free Shooter
  • InfantryHan Banner
  • InfantryReformed Mughal Musketeer
  • InfantryPolish Musketeer
  • InfantryMuscovite Musketeer
  • InfantryBantu Plains Warfare
  • InfantryNiger Kongolese Forest Warfare
  • InfantryAfrican Hill Warfare
  • InfantryEthiopian Mountain Warfare
  • InfantrySteppe Footmen
1557 Spanish Square developed naturally from the Pike and shot formations. At its core was a traditional Pike Square. At each of the corners it had a group of Arquebusiers. It kept the staying power of the traditional pike square and enhanced it with the firepower of the Arquebus.
58 Trunnions
  • Artillery shock: +10%
  • Artillery fire: +40%
  • ArtillerySmall Cast Iron Cannon
  • ArtilleryLarge Cast Iron Cannon
1570 The new and more mobile artillery had one problem - it could not be easily elevated up and down to adjust its firing range. Trunnions were cylindrical protrusions that acted as mounts for the gun on its carriage, which allowed it to be tilted and thus aimed better.
59 Tenaille
  • Infantry Fire: +50%
  • Enables Fort Level 4
  • Combat width +2
  • CavalryAfrican Hussar
  • French Caracolle
  • InfantryHuron Arquebusier
  • InfantryCreek Arquebusier
  • InfantryAztec Gunpowder Warfare
  • InfantryMaya Gunpowder Warfare
  • InfantryZapotec Gunpowder Warfare
  • InfantrySouth American Reformed Gunpowder Warfare
  • CavalryNorth American Hussar
  • CavalryCentral American Hussar
  • CavalrySouth American Hussar
  • CavalryPolish Hussar
  • CavalryMuscovite Caracolle
  • CavalryZaporozhian Cossack
  • Topchis Artillery
  • CavalryAsian Charge Cavalry
  • CavalryReformed Mughal Mansabdar
  • CavalrySteppe Lancer
1583 It was difficult to fire around curved walls, thus once attackers got close enough to the fortification, the ability of other parts of the defenses to provide flanking fire was nullified. The development of star-shaped bastions allowed every part of the wall to be supported from other parts.
60 Maurician Infantry
  • Land morale: +1
  • Military tactics: +25%
  • InfantryCharge Infantry
  • InfantryMaurician Infantry
  • InfantryAfsharid Reformed Infantry
  • InfantryMuscovite Soldaty
  • Polish Tercio
  • InfantryAsian Mass Infantry
  • InfantryBantu Gunpowder Warfare
  • InfantryNiger Kongolese Gunpowder Warfare
  • InfantryAdal Gunpowder Warfare
  • InfantryEthiopian Gunpowder Warfare
  • InfantrySteppe Musketeers
1596 The size and depth of the Spanish Square gave it staying power but made it slow and cumbersome to maneuver on the battlefield. It also led to a large percentage of troops being inactive during battles. Maurice of Nassau, the Stadtholder of the Netherlands, reduced the total number of men in the formation to make it more mobile and reduced its depth, so it maintained the same firepower and shock values.
61 Standardization of Calibre
  • Artillery shock: +10%
  • Artillery fire: +100%
  • Enables Training Fields
  • Combat width +1

ArtilleryChambered Demi-Cannon

1609 With artillery's growing importance in the battlefield, also the number of firearms kept increasing. But because each gun was made separately, it also required great effort to resupply. In 1544, Emperor Charles V declared that there would be only 5 calibres of gun, while King Henry II of France set 6 standard calibres.
62 Flintlock Musket
  • Cavalry shock: +100%
  • Supply limit: +50%
  • CavalryMaharathan Cavalry
  • CavalryManchu Banner
  • CavalryAfrican Swarm
1622 The matchlock firing mechanism's biggest weakness was the need to keep the match lit in order to fire the weapon. Although wheellock was developed, it was too expensive to produce to enter into mass use. The development of flintlock created a more reliable weapon.
63 Carbine
  • Maneuver Value +25%
  • Enables Conscription Center
  • Combat Width +2
  • CavalryGallop Cavalry
  • InfantrySikh Hit and Run
  • InfantryBhonsle Infantry
  • CavalryOttoman Reformed Spahi
  • InfantryMamluk Musket Charge
  • CavalryAfsharid Reformed
  • Leather Cannon
  • InfantrySteppe Mountain Raiders
1635 The carbine was a shorter form of the musket.
64

Gustavian Infantry

  • Military tactics: +50%
  • Supply limit: +50%
  • Enables Fort Level 6
  • InfantryReformed Tercio
  • InfantryGustavian Infantry
  • InfantryHighlanders Infantry
  • InfantrySaxon Infantry
  • InfantryOttoman Reformed Janissary
  • InfantryAsian Musketeer
  • InfantryIncan Guerilla Warfare
  • InfantryIroquois Rifle Scout
  • InfantryPeruvian Guerilla Warfare
  • InfantryMexican Guerilla Warfare
  • InfantryMaya Guerilla Warfare
  • CavalryComanche Swarm
  • CavalryCentral American Swarm
  • CavalrySouth American Swarm
  • InfantrySteppe Infantry
1648 Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, further developed infantry units to improve their firepower. His infantry formations were narrowed and made rectangular to increase the number of muskets that could fire in each volley. Attachment of small artillery pieces further increased the firepower of infantry.
65 Killing Grounds
  • Infantry fire: +50%
  • Combat width: +2

ArtillerySwivel Cannon

1661 With development of new bastions engineers began to improve the art of positioning them to channel attacking armies into specially prepared killing grounds, where the defenders could inflict maximum amount of casualties on their enemy.
66 Line Infantry Infantry shock: +50% Sprite level 3 1674 Thanks to bayonets, each musketeer could function as a pikeman as well. This allowed pikes to be removed from infantry equipment and provided infantry formations with more firepower.
67 Cartridge
  • Cavalry fire: +50%
  • Artillery shock: +10%
  • Artillery fire: +200%
  • Enables Conscription Center
  • Combat width: +2
  • CavalryPolish Winged Hussars
  • CavalryMuscovite Cossack
  • Coehorn Mortar
1687 In the 1620s the idea of combining the shot and powder into a single unit, a cartridge, allowed for faster reloading and thus firing. This in turn dramatically improved the firepower of guns.
68 Light Cavalry
  • Cavalry shock: +100%
  • Military tactics: +50%
  • Maneuver Value: +50%
  • InfantryGrenzer Infantry
  • InfantryCaroline Infantry
  • InfantryLine Infantry
  • CavalryArme Blanche Cavalry
  • CavalryLatin Dragoons
  • CavalryLatin Hussars
  • InfantryOttoman Toprakli Hit and Run
  • CavalrySioux Dragoon
  • CavalryCentral American Dragoon
  • CavalrySouth American Dragoon
  • CavalryAfrican Dragoon
  • InfantryMaharathan Guerilla Warfare
  • InfantryDurrani Rifled Musketeer
  • InfantryOttoman Nizami Cedid
  • InfantryNiger Kongolese Guerilla Warfare
  • InfantryAdal Guerilla Warfare
  • InfantryEthiopian Guerilla Warfare
  • CavalryMuslim Dragoon
  • InfantryAli Bey Reformed Infantry
  • CavalryIndian Shock Cavalry
  • CavalryChinese Dragoon
  • InfantryRussian Petrine
  • CavalrySteppe Cavalry
1700 Heavily armored cavalrymen were by their nature cumbersome to form up and vulnerable on the battlefield. Lighter cavalry was added to armies to act as scouts for the army during marching and screen heavier cavalry before its charge on the battlefield.
69 Covered Way
  • Enables Fort Level 8
  • Combat width: +2
None 1715 An outer ditch became a key area for the siege. If attacking troops gained control of the glacis, then the bastions would be lost. The ditch became the first line of defense for a fort. Access to this ditch, and ensuring it kept providing protection to defending troops became a key part of fortification design.
70 Metallurgy
  • Artillery shock: +10%
  • Artillery fire: +200%

ArtilleryRoyal Mortar

1730 Improvements in metallurgy allowed cannons to become lighter and more reliable. This allowed them to become more effective on the battlefield.
71 Light Infantry Companies
  • Land morale: +100%
  • Combat width: +2

Sprite level 4

  • InfantryWhite Coat Infantry
  • InfantryBlue Coat Infantry
  • InfantryRedcoat Infantry
  • InfantryFrederickian Infantry
  • CavalryUhlan Cavalry
  • CavalryReformed Latin Hussars
  • InfantryCarabiniers
  • InfantryIndian Rifle
  • InfantryWesternized Bantu
  • InfantryWesternized Niger Kongolese
  • InfantryWesternized Adal
  • InfantryWesternized Ethiopia
  • InfantryApache Guerilla
  • InfantryWesternized South American
  • InfantryWesternized Aztec
  • InfantryWesternized Zapotec
  • InfantryWesternized Incan
  • InfantrySteppe Rifles
1745 First introduced to the Austrian army as irregular troops from the military frontier during the Seven Years war, Light Infantry Companies were deployed in loose order and proved to be very effective at harassing enemy and leading assaults on entrenchments.
72 Bayonet
  • Supply limit: +50%
  • Infantry fire: +50%
None 1760 Although a musket could always be wielded as a club, it was not an effective hand-to-hand weapon. A bayonet was a blade that was fitted to the end of a musket, allowing the weapon to function as a spear. Initial bayonet designs plugged the barrel, making it an either or choice, but the development of the ring bayonet, which fitted around the barrel, turned a musket into a useful support weapon.
73 Cuirassier
  • Maneuver value: +25%
  • Infantry shock: +50%
  • InfantryImpulse Infantry
  • InfantrySquare Infantry
  • CavalryLatin Chasseur
  • CavalryLatin Lancers
  • CavalryLatin Cuirassiers
  • CavalryOttoman Toprakli Dragoon
  • CavalryOttoman Lancer
  • InfantryReformed Manchu Rifle
  • CavalryOpen Order Cavalry
  • CavalryDurrani Dragoon
  • CavalryDurrani Swivel
  • InfantrySikh Rifle
  • CavalryBhonsle Cavalry
  • CavalryReformed Asian Cavalry
  • CavalrySteppe Uhlans
1775 Although a cuirass (or a breast plate) had existed for many years, only recently a new style of cavalryman gained popularity, with only a breast and back plate, which provided better balance between protection to the key parts of the body and mobility.
74 Defense in Depth No effect

ArtilleryFlying Battery

1790 Thanks to the building of several layers of fortification, overrunning of outer bastions simply moved the siege to the next layer, forcing attackers to prepare new locations to site guns and increasing the length of the siege.
75 Impulse Warfare
  • Military tactics: +50%
  • Land morale: +10%
  • Maneuver value: +25%

Sprite level 5

  • InfantryMixed Order Infantry
  • InfantryDrill Infantry
  • InfantryJaeger Infantry
  • InfantryNapoleonic Square
  • InfantryPersian Rifle
  • InfantryOttoman New Model
  • InfantryTipu Sultan Rocket
  • InfantryAmerican Western Franchise Warfare
  • InfantryAfrican Western Franchise Warfare
  • InfantryWesternized Mayan
  • InfantryReformed Westernized Incan
  • InfantryReformed Steppe Rifles
1805 The introduction of light infantry troops led to a change in warfare. Skirmishers were deployed forward in loose order to distract and harass the enemy before the main infantry attack, which was typically delivered in either a line or a column.
76 Rifle
  • Cavalry shock: +100%
  • Infantry shock: +100%
  • Supply limit: +50%
None 1820 The musket's weakness was the fact that it was highly inaccurate beyond 50 yards. The rifle, although never a standard infantry weapon, added greater range to elite units, which gave the army a greater overall punch.
77 Field Howitzer
  • Artillery shock: +10%
  • Artillery fire: +200%

ArtilleryField Howitzer

1835 Originally developed for siege purposes, the howitzer fired a high angled projectile over the fortifications and into the town inside. The field howitzer, a lighter more mobile variant, would fire an explosive shell above enemy troops. Mixed with other artillery types, it added to the effectiveness of artillery brigades.
78 Percussion Cap
  • Infantry fire: +50%
  • Land morale: +1

InfantryPercussion Cap Musket

1848 The percussion cap, introduced circa 1820, was the crucial invention that enabled muzzleloading firearms to fire reliably in any weather. The percussion cap replaced the flint, the steel 'frizzen', and the powder pan of the flint-lock mechanism.
79 Breech-Loading Rifled Guns
  • Artillery shock: +50%
  • Artillery fire: +100%

ArtilleryArmstrong Gun

1855 Although breech-loading weapons were developed as far back as the late 14th century, breech-loading became more successful with improvements in precision engineering and machining in the 19th century. The main challenge for developers of breech-loading weapons was sealing the breech. This was eventually solved by the developments of the self-contained metallic cartridge and the interrupted screw.
80 Needle Gun Infantry fire: +50%
  • InfantryNeedle Gun
  • InfantryChassepot Rifle
  • InfantryLever Action Rifle
  • CavalryModern Cavalry
1867 A needle gun is a firearm that has a needle-like firing pin, which can pass through the paper cartridge case to strike a percussion cap at the bullet base. A needle gun with a barrel that has a rifling cut into the barrel walls is also called needle rifle.
81 Bolt Action
  • Infantry fire: +100%
  • Infantry shock: +100%

InfantryBolt Action Rifle

1885 he first bolt-action rifle was produced in 1824 following work on breechloading rifles that dated to the 18th century. European armies continued to develop bolt-action rifles through the late 19th century, adopting tubular magazines and later box magazines. The Mauser Gewehr 98 was considered the epitome of this type of action, and its descendents became the standard against which all such rifles are measured. World War I marked the height of the bolt-action rifle's use, with all of the nations in that war fielding troops armed with various bolt-action designs.
82 Artillery Recoil Mechanism
  • Artillery shock: +50%
  • Artillery fire: +100%

ArtilleryFrench 75

1897 Developing a hydro-pneumatic recoil mechanism for artillery, could keep the gun's trail and wheels perfectly still during the firing sequence. Since the gun would not need to be re-aimed after each shot, the crew could fire as soon as the barrel returned to its resting position significantly increasing the rate of fire.
83 Early Tanks
  • Cavalry shock: +100%
  • Cavalry fire: +200%
  • ArtilleryMachine Gun
  • CavalryMark Heavy Tank
  • CavalryRenault FT
  • CavalryFiat 3000
  • ArtilleryType 89 I-Go
1915 Some of our military engineers have come up with the idea of heavily armored tracked vehicles. These tanks could able to cross trenches, resist small-arms fire, travel over difficult terrain, carry supplies, and capture fortified enemy positions.
84 Aerial Warfare Land morale: +1 None 1930 The recent invention of airplanes could be useful for military purposes. They could be used for reconnaissance or to drop bombs on enemy territory.
85 Gun Turret
  • Cavalry fire: +100%
  • Cavalry shock: +100%
  • InfantryAssault Rifle
  • CavalryChurchill Tank
  • CavalryTiger I
  • ArtilleryT-34
  • CavalryM4 Sherman
1936 Although the tanks have proven to be useful in the battlefield, they are rather slow to turn and target the enemy. By installing a rotating turret on the tanks, they could fire at different directions without too much effort.
86 Rocket Artillery Artillery fire: +100%
  • CavalryCarro Armato P-2640
  • ArtilleryKatyusha Rocket
  • ArtilleryLand Mattress
1940 Rocket artillery mounted on trucks is much more mobile compared to gun artillery. They can also fire several rockets at once achieving a much greater rate of fire.
87 Nuclear Bome Land morale: +1 None 1946 Extremely powerful nuclear bombs are capable of destroying entire cities in seconds. Even if not used, they have a demoralizing effect on the enemy as they know that their hometowns could be decimated by a press of a button.
88 Modern Assalt Rifle
  • Infantry fire: +100%
  • Infantry shock: +100%
  • InfantryAK-47
  • InfantryM16 Rifle
1960 Combat experience during the World Wars had shown that most infantry combat was most likely won by the one with the highest rate of fire. From this experience was developed the assault rifle, which maximizes the rate of fire while having minimal recoil and reload time.
89 Main Battle Tanks
  • Cavalry fire: +100%
  • Cavalry shock: +100%
  • CavalryM1 Abrams
  • CavalryLeopard 2
  • T-80
  • CavalryNorinco Type 62
  • CavalryType 90 Kyu-maru
1980 The main battle tank is designed for filling the direct fire role in modern armies.
90 Missile Guidance System
  • Cavalry fire: +100%
  • Artillery fire: +100%
  • ArtilleryPzH 2000
  • Artillery2S19 MSTA
  • ArtilleryM270 MLRS
1995 With the help of a guidance system, our missiles will have a significantly increased chance of hitting their targets even across great distances.
91 Military Robots
  • Infantry fire: +100%
  • Infantry shock: +100%

InfantryLand Warrior

2025 By developing robots for the riskiest and most physically demanding tasks, we could decrease the risks our soldiers have to face. Machines also never have to rest and they know no fear.
92 Future Military 1
  • Cavalry fire: +100%
  • Cavalry shock: +100%
  • CavalryArmata T-14
  • CavalryM1A3 Abrams
2040 In the future, the role of robots and indirect warfare seem to be increasing, and the wars will likely be fought over the increasingly limited recources of the earth.
93 Future Military 2 Land morale: +100% None 2080 In the future, the role of robots and indirect warfare seem to be increasing, and the wars will likely be fought over the increasingly limited recources of the earth.
94 Future Military 3
  • Artillery shock: +100%
  • Infantry shock: +100%
  • Cavalry shock: +100%
None 2120 In the future, the role of robots and indirect warfare seem to be increasing, and the wars will likely be fought over the increasingly limited recources of the earth.
95 Future Military 4 Supply limit: +50% None 2160 In the future, the role of robots and indirect warfare seem to be increasing, and the wars will likely be fought over the increasingly limited recources of the earth.
96 Future Military 5 Maneuver value: +25% None 2200 In the future, the role of robots and indirect warfare seem to be increasing, and the wars will likely be fought over the increasingly limited recources of the earth.
97 Future Military 6
  • Artillery fire: +100%
  • Infantry fire: +100%
  • Cavalry fire: +100%
None 2240 In the future, the role of robots and indirect warfare seem to be increasing, and the wars will likely be fought over the increasingly limited recources of the earth.
98 Future Military 7 Land morale: +100% None 2280 In the future, the role of robots and indirect warfare seem to be increasing, and the wars will likely be fought over the increasingly limited recources of the earth.
99 Future Military 8
  • Artillery shock: +100%
  • Infantry shock: +100%
  • Cavalry shock: +100%
None 2320 In the future, the role of robots and indirect warfare seem to be increasing, and the wars will likely be fought over the increasingly limited recources of the earth.

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